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Chemistry chapter 6 - bondings


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Chemical bond
attaction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
Ionic bond
formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from a metal atom to a non metal atom
Covalend bond
a bond that if formed by the sharing of electrons between non metal atoms
- equal sharing of electron => non-polar compounds
- unequal sharing => polar compounds
How to determine type of bond?
-look at the atoms in the bond
-determine by looking a difference in electrongetivity of each atom in the bond
0-0.3 : non-polar covalent
0.3-1.7: polar covalent
1.7-4.0: ionic
( IN each parid, the atom with the larger electronegativity will be the more-negative atom)
Bond energy
the amount of energy needed to break a bond ( bong strength)
bond length
distance between the nuclei in the bond.
a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds
molecular compound
a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
molecular formula
shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
diatomic molecule
molecule containing only two atoms
octet rule
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing , or sharing elecrons, has an octet of electrons in its highes occupied energy level.
exception to the octet rule
P,S,Br,I,Xe,Kr > 8
Be, B < 8
How to draw a Lewis diagram?
1) Identify the type and numbers of each atom in the compounds
2) draw a lewis diagram for each element
3) count the total number of valence electrons
4) determine the central atom ( the atom that all other atoms are bonded to )
5) arrange the skeleton structure around the central atom
6) connects the dots with a line to indicate a bond
7) count the valence elctrons
Lone pair (or unshared pair)
is a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom.
Lewis structures
formulars in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalend bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represend unshared electrons
structural formula
indicates the kind,number,arrangement,and bonds but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule
For ex- F-F, H-Cl
single bond
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms
double bond
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms
multipe bonds
are referred to double and triple bonds
Poly-atomic ions
ions that are formed from 2 or more atoms covalently bonded together
refers to bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be represented by a single Lewis structure
* Reality is both bonds have equal strength and equal length.
* bond strength is < double bond but > single bond
* bond length is > double bond but < single bond
ionic compound
composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
formula unit
the simplest collection of atoms from which an ioinc compound's formula can be established

For example: one formula uni of sodium choride, NaCl, is one sodium cation plus one chloride anion
+ charged ion
_ charged ion
lattice energy
the enery required to separate the ions in the crystal lattice
crystal lattice
a very regular pattern of + and - charges
What are the two things that affect the lattice energy?
1) size of the ions
2) charge of the ion ( The greater the charge of the ion, the greater the lattice energy)
Metallic bonding
chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surround sea of electrons
* high electrical and thermal conductivity ( due to the highly mobile valence electrons of the atoms that make up a metal )
* malleability - the abilitiy to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets
* ductility- the ability to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire.
Chemical formula
indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts

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