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Chapter 14 Personality


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What is personaltiy?
An individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits.
And the distinct patterns of behaviors including thoughts and feelings that characterize a persons adaption to the demands of life.
What are the 4 principle uses of personality tests?
1) psychological Research: Measuring personaltiy traits in empirical studies.
2)Counceling:advising people on career plans and decisions
3)Personnel Selection:Choosing employees for business and government
4)Clinical Diagnosis:assessing the type of psychological disorder a person may have.
What is the Self-Report Inventories (SRI)
Such as MMPI and the 16 PF tests that measure multiple traits.
What does the MMPI stand for?
Minnosota Multifasic Personality Inventory
What does the 16 PF stand for?
Personaltiy Factors
What does the MMPI do?
Designed to diagnose psychological disorders. It contains 567 questions, 4 validity scales to help detect deception. and it has 10 clinical scales in this test.
What does the 16 PF do?
Its designed to assess the normal personality. it contains 187 questions.
What are the diadvantages of the SRI's?
The are subject to several sources of error such as: 1)Deliberatly Deceive 2)Social Desireability Bias and 3)Response Set Error
What are projective tests?
People tend to project their characteristics onto ambigous stimuli, so that what they see reveals something about their personalities and problems
what are the 2 major projective tests?
1)Rorschach Ink Blot Test
2)TAT (Thematic Appreception Test)
What are the Advantages of Projective Tests?
1)Since the way the tests are interpreted is not at all obvious, it is difficult for people to engage in intentional deception.
2)May help tap problems or aspects of the personality of which people are unconscious or unaware.
What are the 3 levels of traits according to Gordon Allport?
1)Cardinal Traits: Characterised almost all of a person's behavior.
2)Central Traits: the 5 or 10 dominant traits possessed by most people.
3)Secondary Traits: the less consistent disposistions that occur in some situations, but not others.
What did James Cattel Believe?
Proposed classification scheme for personality traits derived from the statistical procedure of factor analysis. This system reduces Allports list of traits words to 16 source traits
What is Costa and McCraes 5 factor inventory?
1)Neurotiscm v/s Emotional Stability
2)Extroversion v/s Introversion
3)Openess to experience v/s lack of openess to experience
4)Agreeable v/s Antagonism
5)Conscientiousness v/s undirectedness
What is the ego?
Mediator; able to delay gratification; reality principle
What is the Id?
Instinctive urges contains all psych energy; pleasure principle.
What is the Superego?
The conscience; moral component
What did Frued believe?
That most of our conflicts center in sexual and aggressive urges.
Creating false but reasonable sounding excuses.
Pushing distressing thoughts into the unconscious.
Attributing ones own thoughts, feelings, or conflicts to another.
Diverting emotional feelings from their orginal source to a substitute target.
Reaction Formation
Taking on an emotion the exact opposite of the way one really feels.
A return to an earlier. less mature stage of development.
Forming a real or imaginary alliance with a group or person; becoming like them.
What are Freuds 5 psychosexual stages of development?
1)Oral:First year
2)Anal:Second year
3)Phallic:Ages 3-5
4)Latency:Ages 5-puberty
5)Genital:Puberty on
What is the Oedipus Complex?
Male complex experienced in phallic stage.
What is the Electra Complex?
Female complex experience in phallic stage.
What did Jung Believe?
Emphasized the unconscious determinants of personality just as Freud did. He proposed the unconscious consists of two layers.
What are the 2 layers of personal unconscious
1)Personal Unconscious:Similar to Freuds but has less emphasis on sexuality.
2)Collective Unconscious:Repository of inherited, ancestral memories, which jung termed ARCHETYPES.
What are arachetypes?
ancestral memories such as All-powered God, the young hero, wicked witches, wise old man, fairy godmothers, the fertile/nurturing mother.
What was Jungs major contribution to psychology?
Extroversion and Introversion
What did Adler Believe?
The driving force behind the human personality was striving for superiority and the attempt to overcome childhood feelings of inferiority.
What is the Inferiority Complex?
An exaggerated feeling of inadequacy supposedly caused by parental pampering or parental neglect in early childhood.
Who believed that Birth Order had a major impact on personality?
What is the inkblot test?
Commonly used projective test in which the subject is asked to examine inkblots and say what they look like or bring to mind.
What is the California Psychological Inventory (CPI)?
It is designed to test dominance, sociability. self-acceptance,socail presence, self control, responsibility, etc.
What is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)?
Projective test for personality assessment in which the subject is shown cards depicting various scenes and is asked to describe what is happening in each scene.

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