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Cell Processes Review


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What is the process by which organisms burn food to produce energy?
cell respiration
What is the starting material of cellular respiration?
What is the energy storage molecule for the cell?
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
What does ATP consist of?
an adenosine molecule bonded to 3 phosphate groups
What is the equation for aerobic cellular respiration?
6O-2 + C-6H-12O-6 = 6CO-2 + 6H-20 + ATP energy
What is the first step of aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
Where does glycolysis take place?
the cytoplasm of the cell
What is the 3 carbon end product of glycolysis?
What is an energy-carrying coenzyme produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
What is the chemical formula for glycolysis?
C-6H-12O-6 + 2ATP + 2NAD+ = 2pyruvate + 4ATP +2NADH
What does glycolysis spilt glucose into?
2 pyruvate molecules, that each contain 3 carbons
How many ATP are invested and gained in glycolysis?
2 invested, 2 gained (4 total)
Does glycolysis require oxygen?
What other name is the Krebs cycle referred to by?
the citric acid cycle
How many ATP molecules result in the Krebs cylce?
2 ATP, for each molecule run through glycolysis
What molecules does the Krebs cycle send to the next step in respiration?
What is the next step in respiration after the Krebs cycle?
the electron trasnport chain
Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
the mitochondrial matrix
Why does the Krebs cycle only take place when oxygen is present?
it relies on by-products from the electron transport chain, which requires oxygen
What is a process occurring in the mitochondria that results in the formation of ATP from the flow of electrons across the inner membrane to bind with oxygen?
oxidative phosphorylation
How many ATP molecules are produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle combined?
How many ATP molecules does the electron transport train produce?
Where does the electron transport chain occur?
the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Does the electron transport chain require oxygen?
What is the 2nd stage of anaerobic respiration?
What produces the NAD+ necessary for glycolysis during anaerobic respiration?
What are the two types of fermentation?
alcoholic and lactic acid
What type of fermentation does yeast engage in?
alcoholic fermentation
What type of fermentation do white muslce cells engage in?
lactic acid fermentation
Aneraerobic respiration produces how many net ATP in glycolysis?
2 net ATP
What is the fundamental unit of heredity, composed of a stretch of DNA?
How many bases of DNA are needed to produce one type of protein?q
How many codons and amino acids are there?
64 codons, 20 amino acids
Why is the DNA code said to be degenerate?
It is redundant b/c some of the different codons call for the same amino acid.
What does a stop codon do and how many are there?
It signals when a protein is fully formed and there are 3
What does a start codon do and how many are there?
It signals the beginning of an amino acid sequence and there is only 1.
What are errors or changes in the DNA sequence?
What type of mutation occurs when a single nucleotide is replaced by a different nucleotide?
substitution mutation
What are substitution mutations that have no effect at all?
silent mutations
What type of mutation occurs when a nucleotide is wrongly inserted or deleted from a codon?
frameshift mutation
What effects do frameshift mutations have and why?
deliberating or lethal b/c it affects every codon in a particular gene sequence
What type of frameshift mutation may not have lethal effects?
When an entire codon is inserted or deleted
How many chromosomes do humans have?
What is the total number of distinct chromosomes in a cell?
the cell's diploid number
Any plant or animal cell that is not a germ cell, meanining it is not passed down to offspring.
somatic cell
What are chromosomes that contain the same series of genes?
homologous chromosomes
What is the number of homologous pairs in a cell or half the diploid number?
haploid number
What is a haploid sex cell?
What is DNA's sugar?
What sugar does RNA contain?
What is an RNA molecule that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein?
messenger RNA (mRNA)
What exactly does mRNA do?
Its molecules copy the genetic information stored in DNA and then brings the reipes for proteins from the nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
What is an RNA molecule used in protein synthesis as a link helping to convert mRNA into amino acids?
transfer RNA (tRNA)
What are the two steps of protein synthesis?
transcripiton and translation
What goes on during transcription?
The information encoded in DNA is encoded into mRNA.
What is the sequence of 3 nucleotides on tRNA that pairs with a codon of mRNA at the A site of a ribosome during translation?
What is the phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle in which the cell divides?
What are the 4 steps (in order) of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
What is the process in which cells reproduce?
cell cycle
What are the 2 phases of the cell cycle?
interphase and mitosis proper
during this phase the cell copies its DNA and prepares for division
How many new DNA molecules does replication produce?
After replication how are the new chromosomes joined together?
In the shape of an X, joined together at the centromere.
What are the two halves of the chromosome structure?
What goes on during prophase?
The chromosomes become visible and the centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell and begin to form the spindle.
What happens during metaphase?
Microtubules align the chromosomes in the center of the cell along the metaphase plate.
What happens during anaphase?
Sister chromosomes are separated and pulled to opposite ends of the cell by microtubules.
What happens during telophase?
The nuclear envelope re-forms around separated sister chromatids and kinetochore microtubules disappear.
What happens during cytokinesis?
A cell with duplicated contents splits into two independent cells.

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