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Bio Chapter 13


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What were the first Cells?
1. bacteria
2. prokaryotes
What is cyanobacteria?
-one of early bacteria
-important=released oxygen into the atmosphere
2 Kingdoms of Bacteria:
-cause disease and decay
2 Kingdoms of Bacteria:
-different structures
-different ways of making protein from DNA
-appear to be the ancestors of all eukaryotic cells
many books refer to these 2 kingdoms together as one kingdom:
monera's (monerans)
-new organism that developed 1.5 billion years ago
-first eukaryotes
-first muchleus and DNA inside it
*6 Kingdoms of Living Organisms*
1. archaebacteria
2. eubacteria
3. protista
4. fungi
5. plantae
6. animals
*Multicellular Organisms*
*great step in evolution
*allowed for "division of labor"
-cells became specialized
*oldest multicellular fossil
*630 millions years old
*found in Australia
*Precambrian Era*
*3.5 billion years ago to 600 million years ago
-"strip calander"-bottom of p.274-277
*Cambrian Period*
-600-500 million years ago
*time of great evolutionary experimentation
-most of today's organisms orignated during this time span
-tremendous diversity of life
Mass Extinction:
*First One*
*440 million years ago
*end of ordivician period
*many life forms died
Mass Extinction:
*Second One*
*360 million years ago
Mass Extinction:
*Third One*
*250 million years ago
*at end of Permean Period
**greatest one
*96% of all species died
Mass Extinction:
*Fourth One*
*215 million years ago
*less devastating
Mass Extinction:
*Fifth One*
*last one
*65 million years ago
*2/3 of all land species died-including the dinosaurs
Resons for Mass Extinctions (Unclear)
-massive climate or geologic changes
-another one may be happening now=why?
No Life on land for a long time
-due to deadly rays of the sun
-slowly oxygen was being added to atmoshpere
-ozone layer was created
-acts as a shield and stops the ultraviolet sun rays
-the land became safe
Plants and Fungi invade land
-430 millions years ago
-a partnership between plants and fungi: mycorrhizae (mutualism)
-sybiosis-need each other to live
-plants=make food
-fungi=anchor, absorbs water and minerals
arthropods invade the land
-first animals on land
-scorpions, crabs, lobsters
around 370 million years ago
-insects evolved-very important
-first animals to have wings
-partnerships between insects and flowering plants have led to both of their successes
vertebrates invade land
-animals w/ backbones
-vertebrate fish present in oceans since 550 million years ago
-first land vertebrate=350 million years ago
-first ones were amphibians
-frogs, toads, salamandors
*Fish=first vertebrates*
*jawless fish-sucker mouth
*450 million years ago
-jaws evolve
-430 million years ago
-more efficent hunter
*2 groups of jawed fish*
*skeleton of cartilage
*large fins
*swim well
*bony fish
*skeleton of bone
*swim well
*swim bladder
amphibians invade land
-350 million years ago
-still present today-outlasted dinosaurs
*developed lungs, limbs, improved heart and circulatory system
*not perfect land organism-they must return to water to reproduce and live in moist areas
*reptiles invade land*
*they are "improved" amphibian
*watertight skin, watertight eggs, lay eggs on land
-around 300 million years ago
*reptiles became the dominant land animal
*permean extinction killed most, but not all reptiles
Continental Drift
-movement of earth's giant land masses causes earth's present day position of continents
birds and mammals dominate earth
-another major mass extinction killed most land animals bigger than a dog
-small reptiles, mammals, and bids survived
-due to mass extinction there were many empty niches to be filled by mammals and birds

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