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Chapter 4: The Road to Independance


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What is Technology?
The application of Science.
What are Patents?
Liscenses to make, use, or sell an invention.
What is Productivity?
The amount of goods the services created in a given period of time.
Who is Professor C.F. Dowd?
A man who created the Time Zones.
What is the Transcontinental Railroad?
A railway extending from coast to coast.
What was the Pacific Railroad Act?

It gave land grants to construct the Transcontinental Railroad.
What is the Central Pacific?
It began laying track eastern out of Sacramento.
What is the Union Pacific?
It began work towards the west in Omaha.
Who was Jack Casement?
A contractor for an Ohio railroad, part of the Union Pacific. Mainly hired Irish Workers.
Who was Charlie Crocker?
President of a construction firm, part of the Central Pacific. Mainly hired Chinese Workers.
What does the term "Crocker's Pets" entail?
Charlie Crocker's chinese workers.
What is significant about the location of Promontory Point, Utah?
It is where Leland Stanford drove the final golden spike of the Transcontinental Railroad.
Who was George Westinghouse?
He developed more effective air brakes.
What was the Credit Mobilier Scandal?
It limited the liability of stockholders. They were asking for more money than they needed, and ultimately made a profit.
Define "telegraph."
Sending messages over wires.
Who was Samuel F.B. Morse?
He created Morse Code and took out a patent on telegraphy.
What was the Western Union Company?

The first telegraph company.
Define "telephone."
"Talking telegraph."
Who was Alexander Graham Bell?
A man who took out the patent on the telephone.
Who was Thomas Alva Edison?
The inventor of electricity.
Who was the "Wizard of Menlo Park?"
It was Edison's nickname from inventing the phonograph.
Who was Michael Faraday?
He contributed significantly to electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
What was the incandescent light bulb?
The first lightbulb. (Created by Edison.)
Who was George Westinghouse and what did he do with his alternating current?
Made home-use of electricity practical.
Who was Henry Bessemer?
Developed a new process for making steel, called the Bessemer Process.
What did the Bessemer Converter do?
Made it much easier and cheaper to remove the impurities.
What was the Open-Hearth process?
A steelmaking technique.
What was Dovorak's New World Symphony?
A training program for orchestral musicians.
Who was Joe Magarac?
A folk hero who worked like he was made of steel.
What was the Mesabi Range?
A vast deposit of iron ore in Northern Minnesota.
What was the Soo Canal?
A canal at Sault St. Marie.
What is a "Captain of Industry?"
Someone who served their nation in a positive way.
What is a "Robber Baron?"
Business leaders who built their fortunes by stealing from the public.
Who was Andrew Carnegie?
Made Carnegie steel.
What was the Carnegie Steel Corporation?

It launched the steel industry in Pittsburgh.
What was the "Gospel of Wealth?"
Andrew Carnegie's essay.
What is Social Darwinism?
Society should do as little as possible to interfere with peoples pursuit of success.
What does the term "Corporate America" entail?
Informal phrase describing the business world of the United States.
What is a monopoly?
Complete control of a product or service.
What is a cartel?
A loose association of business that makes the same product.
Who was Edwin Drake?
A man who proved oil could be extracted from the ground by a well.
Who was John D. Rockefeller?
He formed Standard Oil Company of Ohio.
What is a trust?
A single unit managed by a board of trustees.
What was the Sherman Anti-Trust Act?
It outlawed any combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce.
What is Horizontal Consolidation?
Bringing together many forms in the same business.
What is Vertical Consolidation?
Gaining control of many different businesses that make up all phases of a products developement.
What does the term "economies of scale" mean?
As production increases, the cost of each item produced is often lower.
What is a Holding Company?
A company that owns enough voting stock to take control.
What is a merger?
Corporate finance strategy and management.
What does "Interlocking Directorate" mean?
One or more members of a board of directors are membors of another.
What is the business cycle?
The sinking and rising of the economy, "boom & bust"
What was the Contract Labor Act?

It allowed employers to enter into contracts with immigrants.
What is piecework?
Those who worked fast and produced the most peices earned the most money.
Who was Frederick Winslow Taylor?
An American engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency.
What is the division of labor?
Factory workers performed one small task over and over.
What was a sweatshop?
Employers work long hours at low wages in poor conditions.
What was a company town?
Residents are dependant on a single firm for maintenance.
Who was Jacob Riis?
Wrote the book "How the Other Half Lives," and led positive changes for New York tenement dwellers. He was highly against child labor.
What is socialism?
An economic and political philosophy. It favors public (social) control of property and income, not private control.
What was the Communist Manifesto?

By Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

It denounced the capitalist economic system and predicted workers would overrun it.
Who was Karl Marx?
A German philosopher with radical views of socialism.
What was the Federal Society of Journeymean Cordwainers?
Shoemakers, founded in Philadelphia. It was the strongest of the early unions.
What was the Mechanic's Union of Trade Societies?
A city-wide form of Trade Union.
What was the National Trades Union?
The first national labor organization.
What was the National Labor Union?
It nominated a candidate for president, yet failed to survive the depression.
Who was William Sylvis?
He convened the National Labor Union together.
What was the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor?
It hoped to organize all working men and women, skilled or unskilled.
Who was Uriah Stevens?
He got the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor together.
Who was Terrence Powderly?
A former mechanist, the leader of the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor.
What is arbitration?
A process by which parties to a dispute submit differences to judgement of an impartial person or group appointed by mutual consent or statutory provision.
What was the American Federation of Labor?
Only skilled workers in a network of smaller unions, each devoted to a specific craft.
Who was Samuel Gompers?
A London-born cigar maker, the leader of the American Federation of Labor.
What were Craft Unions?
Small unions devoted to a single craft.
What is collective bargaining?
A process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers.
What was a closed shop?
A workplace in which only Union members would be hired.
What was the Industrial Workers of the World?
Unskilled workers, included many socialists in leadership.
What were Wobblies?
A nickname for the Industrial Workers of the World.
Who was William "Big Bill" Haywood?
The founder of the Industrial Workers of the World.
What was the Great Railway Strike of 1877.
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad announced a wage cut of 10% in midst of a depression.
What was the Haymarket Affair?
Groups of workers who mounted a national demonstration for an 8 hour workday.
What is a scab?
A negative term for a worker called in by an employer to replace striking laborers.
What is an anarchist?
A radical who violently opposes all government.
What is a radical?
One who advocates fundamentally or revolutionary changes in current practices.
What was the Homestead Strike?

A strike in Pennsylvania against Carnegie steel.
Who was Henry Frick?
He tried to cut workers' wages at Carnegie Steel.
What was the Pullman Strike?

A railway workers' strike that spread nation-wide.
Who was George Pullman?
He laid off workers and cut wages 25%.
What was the American Railway Union?
The first industrial union of the United States.
Who was Eugene V. Debs?
A five-time socialist candidate for presidency, ran out of prison.
What is Industrial Unionism?
A labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are in the same Union.
What is Bread & Butter Unionism?
Abandons any other concerns with broader social or political issues, and focusses on immediate demands and interests of its members.
What are Pinkertons?
Hired by Railroads to patrol their trains and set up security systems.
Who was Mother Jones?
A Union Organizer and Orator.

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