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Food Science Exam III for PHS 101


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List for changes that occur during ripening:
increase in tenderness, better browning, improvement of flavor/juiciness, loss of red interior color at a lower cooking temperature
What are the nutritive contributions of meat?
A complete protein (20% muscle 75% water), and saturated fat with cholesterol.
What minerals are in meat?
iron (liver), copper, zinc
What vitamins are in meat?
Niacin and tryptophan (precursor)
Thiamin (E) in pork especially
Vitamin b12
a purplish red color of muscle tissue, it's smaller than hemoglobin
a bright cherry red color that occurs when meat is exposed to oxygen
a brownish color that occurs in older meat that is a signal to cook it or freeze it.
What are the contributions of fat?
Flavor and tenderness
Engergy, cholesterol, saturation of fat
protein, softens and converts into gelatin with heat or moisture
Ripening/Aging of Meat:
Increases tenderness, increases flavor and juiciness, gives better browning, loses redness earlier, it lasts 7-10 days
only occurs in beef
Lamb and Mutton Flavor
Strong acid type of odor
Long cooking helps volatilize these odors
Exterior meat browned flavor: due to maillard reaction
What are 5 objectives in Meat Cookery?
To improve appearance, conserve and develop flavor, to improve safety, to keep tender cuts tender and tenderize the less tender cuts, and to conserve nutrients
Use of Low Oven Temperature (325 F)
1. Lowers cooking losses
2. Gives more juicy meats
3. Meat more evenly done, tender
4. Typical meat flabor more obvious
5. Adequate browning
What are gelatins uses in food preparation?
A gelling agent
A foaming agent in confection or candy products
Interfering agent in candy or frozen desserts
It interfers with large sugar crystal formation
Smoothing agent
Change concentration when:
you are using a extra large mold, if it will spend a long time period in a warm climate, if it has acid in it, if you are whipping, or if you are adding A LOT of extra ingredients
Spanish Cream
gelled egg custard
bland flavor, good with fruit
Differences b/w Batters and Doughs
They vary in thickness, it depends on proportion of flour to liquid
Soft (rolled biscuit dough)
stiff (yeast bread)
Drop (cookie "dough"0
with Yeast (sponge)
A Desirable End Product in Batters and Doughs Requires
Accuracy in measurement (sift, then measure)
Skill in and right amount of manipulation for product
Careful control of temperatures and times- ingredients and baking
Information about kinds and proportions of ingredients
Extracts/Flavorings in Batters and Doughs
Sugar Functions in Batter and Dough
Adds bulk and volume
Helps to tenderize
Browning (maillard rxn)
Adds to moistness inside product
Yeast foods
Liquids (not fats or oils) in Batter and Dough
Hydrate Starch
Transforms protein into gluten
Dissolve certain ingredients (i.e. baking soda/powder)
Baking Powder
Baking Soda + dry acid + small amount of starch
1.5 tsp/cup of flour
Single acting/ double acting
Sodium Aluminum Sulfate
2 dry acids, the first acts as moistened the second acts when heat is applied
Sodium Bicarbonate
B. Soda + acid = gas
1/2 tsp baking soda + 1 cup sour milk; or 1 cup of Buttermilk or
1 tsp baking soda and 1 cup of molasses
Basic Leavening Agents
1. Incorporate air
2. Steam
3. Form gas by interaction of Ingredients- CO2
Egg Functions in Batter and Doughs
1. Incorporate air (angel food cake)
2. steam formation
3. add flavor and color
4. forming emulsion
5. protein coagulate to form cell walls
Characteristics of Shortening/Fats/Oils in Batter and Dough
1. plasticity
2. blending/creaming
3. shortening power
All-purpose flour
most used by consumers
lower in protein
bleached and enriched
middle protein content (8-9%)
Whole-wheat or bran Flour
browner, less tender product, nutty whole grain, more dense
usually combined with another flour
Flour in Batter and Dough
Most wheat flour, bran and germ is removed
Is bleached and enriched with
folic acid, thiamin/niacin, iron, and riboflavin
Proteins in Batter and Dough
Glutenin (moisten) and Gliadin (stirring, folding) form gluten
Strong Elasti framework of product
A yeast bread has extra gluten
A pie crust has minimal gluten
Objectives in Mixing Dough and Batters
1. uniform distribution of ingredients (no lumps)
2. minimum loss of leavening agent
3. optimum blending to produce desired texture
or optimum development of gluten for various products
Defined texture of A batter and dough
cell wall: crust: thick, thin smooth
air cells in b/w cells
crumb and grain
The whole inside of the batter or dough
the whole pattern of air cells across the whole product
Mixing Methods for Batters and Doughs
Muffin Method, Pastry Method, Conventional Cake Method
Pastry Method
Flour + Salt
blend with electric mixer
Then Shortening
Then Liquid
Conventional Cake Method
Cream mixture + sugar + shortening + eggs
Then add dry ingredients
2 parts flour: 1 part liquid
mffin pan at 400 F 20 or 30 minutes
irregular, hollow, steam leavened
450 F in muffin pan 375 F
high egg
Moist inside, crusty inside
Rolled Biscuits
Southern classic, smooth on top, very tender (flakey), manipulated very little
Drop Biscuits
too sticky
bumpy and irregular
Peaks in Muffins:
Too much beating, heat uneven, too much stirring, insufficient leavening
Butter Cake
Contain a lipid ingredient
-Standard butter cake
-Pound Cake
Sponge Cakes
Do not have a separate lipid ingredient
Pound Cake
No commercial leavening agent (no baking powder/soda), just steam/air
More compact and dense
Standard Butter Cake
co2 leavened: baking p./s. + air
soft velvety crumb
even grain
crust thin and tender
Ingredients in cakes
Sugar, shortening, eggs, flour, liquid, commercial leavening agent
Sugar in Cakes
Tenderizer, mix a longer amount of time
Too much sugar and the cake "falls" and becomes gummy
Shortening in Cakes
Tenderizing by shortening gluten strands, airates well (a solid lipid), gives color and flavor
Should be at room temperature to cream well
Eggs in Cakes
Give color, emulsify, give protein to the cells walls
Flour in cakes
All purpose or cake flour
Gives protein, gluten, dry starch
Liquid in Cakes
Milk or water
Commercial Leavening Agent in Cakes
Baking Soda or Powder
too much: cake collapses
too little: cake is dense and heavy
Mixing Methods in Cakes
Conventional Cake Method
Modified Conventional Method
Modified Conventional Sponge Method
Muffin Method
Quick Mix or One-bowl Method
Modified Conventional Method
add only the yolks off the egg, the whites are whipped and folded in
Modified Conventional Sponge Method
Uses a formula low in lipid
Used in lean mixtures
1/2 Sugar reserved and beaten with whites
Muffin Method
Produces a poor cake, not mixed enough
Quick Mix or One-bowl method
Formula high in sugar or lipid
Have all ingred. at room temperature
Stage 1: sift all dries, add fat, all or part of liquid, flavoring and mix
Stage 2: add unbeaten eggs or whites and any liquid w/held and mix
Preparation of Equipment for Shortened Cakes
1. Prepare oven: check racks to be in very middle of over, 350 F for 20-25 min.
2. Prepare Pans: grease or flour
Types of Sponge cakes
White Sponge, Yellow Sponge, Modified Sponge (chiffon)
Ingredients of Angel Food Cake
Egg Whites, Flour, Sugar, Cream of Tartar, Salt and Extracts
Functions of Cream of Tartar in Angel food Cake
Whiten crumb
Stabilizes foam
Prevents Exteme Shrinkage
Tenderizes Cake
Sugar Functions in Angel Food Cake
Interfering agent with maillard reaction
Helps with yellow tones of flour
Eggs Whites in Angel Food Cake
Fresh; Completed separated from yolk, beat until moist peaks, steam is the most important leavener
Merengue Method
An alternative sponge cake method: start adding sugar as whipping egg whites
don't Need t ofold sugar in later
Yeast Changes During Fermentation
1. yeast + sugar = Co2
2. Starch split to maltose
3. Enzymes to organic acids
4. Gluten Quality Changes
Possible and Optimal Yeast Growth Temperatures
Possible: 33-129 F
Optimal: 79-99 F
Milk and Yeast Breads
Should be scalded to destroy enzymes which interfere w/fermentation (undesirable softening if not scalded), it melts solid fat, and helps provide a warm temperature for yeast growth
Flour in Yeast Breads
Bread or all-purpose flour
Yeast in Yeast Breads
flour + sugar + h2o + alcohol = fermentation
Forms of Yeast
Compressed (cake), dry, and Starter
Compressed (cake) yeast
110-115 F
Moist like clay, yeast cells with starch, crumble into warm h2o to soften
Dry Yeast
Doesnt need refrigeration
lasts a year
Do not challenge date
Starter Yeast
Mix of yeast and sugar, then add h2o and flour
Underfermentation of Yeast
Won't get enough co2 or volume, it won't be tender
Overfermentation of Yeast
Too much yeast, too much time, cells walls are large, has a yeasty taste
Liquid in Yeast
Milk (richness in flavor, makes bread crumb more white)
H2O (french bread)
Potato Water (high in starch)
Whey (better than h2o, more nutrients)
Sugar in Yeast Breads
Speeds the rate of Fermentation, Serves as Yeast food, Adds sweet flavor, gives browning
Amt. of Sugar in A loaf of bread or 1 lb. of yeast rolls
Bread: 1.5 T
Rolls: 2-4 T
Salt in Yeast Breads
Inhibits yeast fermentation, has a good effect on texture (otherwise it tastes flat and dull), is important to flavor
Amount of Salt in Yeast Loaf
1 teaspoon
Fat in Yeast Breads
Usually butter and margarine
1. increases tenderness, interfers w/gluten developm.
2. enhances keeping quality (adds moistness to inside)
3. small amounts improve volume
4. improves flavor
Amount of Fat in Yeast Loaf or yeast rolls
Loaf: 1-1.5 T
Rolls: 2-4 T.
Refrigerator Yeast Rolls
dough designed to keep a day or two in the refrigerator; moderate amount of yeast, higher ratio of sugar
Mixing Methods for Yeast Breads
Straight Dough Method
Sponge Method
Batter- Yeast Breads
Straight Dough Method
Scald milk, add ingredients, cool, add yeast, add flour in portions
Sponge Method in Yeast breads
Make sponge, allow to ferment, add partial flour, add fat, salt, then remaining flour
Gives a stronger flavor
Batter-Yeast Breads Method
Slightly faster to make
Not as attractive, irregular grain
Push, Pull back, turn
For 10 minutes
Dough gets smoother and soft
Develops gluten
let rise until dough doubles in volume, punch it down, let it rise until it doubles again, shape it for baking
Ways to Aid Fermentation
Turn electric overn on at 400 F for 1 minutes, then turn off
Put covered bowl of dough on top rack of over while boiling water on the lower rack, close the door
Simmer water in a skillet on range top, cover with a cookie sheet and place pan with dough on top covered with a cloth
Put covered bowl in very warm water in the sink
Panning or Shaping Yeast bread
Do after the first rising
Add extra ingredients
Put in pan or hand shape it
Baking Yeast Breads
1. Final, Rapid Fermentation
2.Temperature of interior rises until yeast and enzymes are destroyed and fermentation has stopped
3. alchol developed is volatilized
4. Gluten becomes fixed crumb
(elastic to solid)
5. Crust is formed (mainly due to Maillard Rxn)
"Oven Spring"
Final, Rapid Fermentation
Characteristics of Good Quality Yeast Product
Interior: thin cell walls, smooth in grain
Exterior: golden crust, maybe medium brown, smooth, no flour on it
Well proportioned interior and exterior
Staling of Yeast Bread
Amylopectin becomes less soluble, wrap in foil and put in over at 350F
Freeze to prevent staling
Pastry Ingredients
Shortening in Pastrys
Tenderizes, gives flakiness, should be at room temperature
Characteristics of High Quality Pastry
Tenderness, Flakiness
Pastry Mixing Techniques
Traditional, Paste Method, Stir and Roll or Oil Method
Traditional Pastry Method
1. Flour and salt
2. Add shortening, cut in with pastry blender until coarse cornmeal consistancy
3. Add liquid (water) carefully: sprinkle for maximum exposure
Rolling Pastry
want diameter circle 2" + pie plate size
1/8 inch in thickness
Pricking Pastry
when cooking w/out filling pierce bottom and side with fork liberally
Preventing Soaked crust
Special Challenge: custard pies (b/c of high protein filling)
Brush crust w/melted fat
Use High oven temperature
3 eggs/2 cup of milk, scald milk
For fruit pies, thicken the filling before adding to crust
Rolled Cookies
Crisp or soft, use minimal flour, 1/4" thick
Drop Cookies
greased baking sheet, like conventional cake, high in fat
Storage of cookies:
air tight container or plastic bag, are freezable
Corrections to baked goods to high altitudes
Cakes: reduction on amount of leavening product
Sponge Cakes: decrease sugar, increase flour
More liquid
Lower oven temperature
Batter and Dough Mixes
Unique ingredients: emulsifiers and preservatives
Consider quality, convienance and time, and ability and supply
Cake is the highest quality
Food Spoilage (Chief Causes)
Bacteria, Enzymes, Oxidation, Infestation, Mechanical Spoilage (brusing)
Environment requirements for microorganisms
favorable temperatures
aerobic; heat sensitive
favor 68F to 95F
Fuzzy, cottony, spots
not necessarily bad: not usually hazardous
Toxic in raw rice or peanuts
Toxicc mold in raw rice and peanuts
Yeasts (microorganisms)
Food production
Like sweet, moist products, ferment inside
Favor 68F to 95F
Destroys flavor; not really hazardous
most concerning, pathogenic
make soured/ cultured products
favor neutral pH, not really acidic food
Are aerobic and anaerobic
spore form is partially heat resisitant
Favor 68F to 131 F
Protein catalysts w/in plants
Make plant products tough; over ripening in fruit
Favor room temperature
pH determines canning technique
< 4.4 (acidic) boiling water bath
>4.5 pressure canning
Boiling Water bath Procedure
Submerge food in hot water and cook them
boil jars and lids
fill jars
seal lid and rings
Submerge in kettle on rack for recommended time
towel: leave undisturbed for 24 hours to develop a tight seal and create a vacuum
Cans in Canned Goods
Steel cans w/tin lids and different inside enamels
Store at a fairly cool temperature and try to use w/in a year
Essential Steps for High Quality Frozen Foods
Quality Product Maturity
Quick Processing
Appropriate Prepartion (blanching and ascorbic acid)
boiling water briefly to inactivate enzymes, quickly cool it
treating food to carefully controlled amounts of ionized radiation for a specific period of time
sterilizes food
Government Food Agencies
US Public Health Service
State, City and County Health Departments
Food, Drug & Cosmetic act of 1938
Main Food Law, still exists
Provisions: illegal to sell decomposed/unsanitary food, to intentionally decieve the buyer is illegal, label statements must be true and factual, should follow standards of identity (% lipid)
Code of Federal Regulations
published standards of identity
Amendments to the Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938
Food Additive Amendment
Delaney Clause
Pesticide Amendment
Food Additive Amendment
1958- b/c of more convienance foods, any ingredient added to fod needed to be tested as safe
Gras List
generally recognized as safe
long used additives
Delaney Clause
any ingredient foudn to cause cnacer in lab animals should not be used in food, would be eliminated
Problems with the Delaney Clause
could be over or under protecting ourselves
humans are not the same as lab animals
no amount in specified
U.S. Department of Agriculture
inspection of meat and poultry
Protein in Milk
Casein - in the milk solids portion
Lactalbumin - in the whey portion
Lactoglobulin- in the whey portion
Fat in Milk
Partially saturated
Breed of cow can have varying levels of fat
Carbohydrate in Milk
Lactose: least sweet of all sugars
Breaks down then milk is "soured"
Flavor Constituents in Fruits
Esters- aromatic/flavor
Organic acids- tartness
Sugars- fructose (sweetest)
Tannins- underripe product
Oils in Skins- fruit flavor extract
4 Factors that influence Vegetable cooking time
Form/Size of pieces
degree of doneness
State: fresh/frozen/canned
Nutrient Catagories in Vegetables
water and minerals
Vitamin A
*also fiber
Goals in Vegetable Preparation
Maintain or develop palatability
maintain optimum testure
maintain attractive appearance
retain mineral/vitamin content
improve safety
improve digestability
not water soluble, dark green
+ acid = pheophytin, yellowish-green
+ time = pyropheophytin
+ alkali = chlorophyllin (ruined texture, destroys b vitamins, bright green)
carotene: not water soluble, hold color well
lycopene: yellow or orange-red
Reddish blue to purple blue
sensitive: needs acids to keep red tones
add acid to maintain natural look
sensitive to metals like tin
very water soluble
sensitive to metal like high carbon steel, they turn ivory, enzymatic darkening when oxygen is added
submerge in h2o to prevent

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