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endocrine pathology 2


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embryological origin of adrenal cortex
zones, secreted products, what stimulates layers of mesenchyme of adrenal gland
zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
stim by angiotensin

zona fasciculata:
glucocorticoids (cortisol)
stim by ACTH

zona reticularis
sex steroids
ACTH stimulation
embryological origin of neural crest
neural crest
blood supply of adrenal glands
renal and inferior phrenic arteries
massive hemorrhage of adrenocortex secondary to bacterial infection (what bug?)
waterhouse-friderich syndrome, neisseria meningitidis
cause of addison's disease (primary chronic adrenocortical hypofunction)
usually autoimmune, assoc with antibodies to adrenal cortex and other endocrine tissues (white women)

sometimes granulomatous disease, amyloid, neoplasm (lung, breast)
signs and symptoms of addissons, what hormones decreased and effects
weakness fatigability anorexia nausea vomiting weight loss and diarrhea


2 dec glucocorticoids: HYPOGLYCEMIA

3 decreased urinary steroids

4 increased ACTH ann increased ACTH precursor: HYPERPIGMENTATION
difference between primary and secondary adrenocortical insufficiency
NO hyperpigmentation (melanotropic hormone low)

NO hyponatremia NO hyperkalemia decreased glucocorticoids and androgens, normal aldosterone (angiotensin system)
most common adrenocortical hyperfunction disease
cushing's syndrome
cushing's syndrome pathogeneses
usually iatrogenic from glucocorticoids

cushing's disease ACTH pituitary adenoma

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