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400 test 3


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92. What is a neuron
it is a nerve fiber can also be called a ____
93. What are the parts of a neuron
dendrite, cell body (soma) Axon make up the parts of a _____
94.what are the fundamental properties of neuron function
highly specialized cells that transmit impulses within animals to cause a change in a target cell are characteristics of ______
what are the two things you need to have an active potential?
stimulus and action potential are the two things you need to make _____
what does stimulation of a neuron lead to?
discharge is what happens when you _____
what is threshold
? A division between two zones is commonly refured to as a ______
what does irritability mean?
ability for cell to store chemicals and discharge and then get restored and then discharged again is called ____
Both Hair cells and endolymph have what common electrical property?
they are both electrically charged this is a characteristic of both _____ and ____
What is the concept of resting potential?
something has the capacity to have active potential is the concept of ____
95. What is the absolute refractory period of a neuron
the critical time during which the cell cannot discharge. Despite stimulation Not enough chemical restoration has taken place so it does not matter how much stimulation you use the cell can not discharge this is what is referred to as ____
What is the relative refractory period
the period of time during which the cell COULD discharge but only if more then usual stimulation referred to as ___
96. What is different about primary auditory neurons
being bipolar is a common characteristics found in ____ neurons
96b. Why is the primary auditory neuron different?
the organ of corti can be smaller, this is a reason that the ___ neuron is different
a bipolar neuron is different in that it has?
more distance between the cell body and the dendrite allowing us to have more sensory neurons in one location
97.What is/where is a ganglion (plural, ganglia)
A groups of cell bodies found in the PNS this we commonly call ____
What makes a ganglia different from a nuclei
___ are found in the central nervous system where nuclei are not
98. What is the difference between an afferent nerve and an efferent nerve
Efferent is the future of hearing research, afferent is sensory bottom going up, and efferent is top going down motor or a muscle nervous system is sending a command to a motor efferent
99. What are the two types of auditory afferent nerve fibers
Type 1 radial and type two spiral are the two types of __________
100. To which type of hair cell do Type I (radial) nerve fibers attach
Inner hair cells have what type of nerve fibers
To which type of hair cell do Type II (spiral) nerve fibers attach
Outter hair cells have what type of nerve fibers
101. What does Many to one means?
that there are a lot of nerve fibers to ONE hair cell means _____
what does One to many means?
One nerve goes to many outer hair cells is the term for ___
102. what six specific structures run in the internal auditory canal
cochlear nerve , superior vestibular inferior vestibular branch, 7th nerve (facial) cochlear vein, cochlear artery are the six structures that are in the ______
103. Relative to the IAC, where is the brainstem
it is medial
103b. Relative to the IAC where is the cerebellum?
it is immediately medial and a little posterior on top of it
103c. Relative to the IAC where is the CPA
It is the point that the 8th nerve meets the pons posterior
103d. CPA stand for
cerebellopantime angle gap between the cerebellum and the petrous portion and the brain stem is abrieviated by ___
104. What is "potential"
ability for something to react to something and have a “action potential” is the term for ____
105.. What are the two most important resting potentials
Intracellular potential, endocochlear potential are the two _____ potentials
106.. What is the source of the "endocochlear potential"
The endocochlear potential (EP) is the positive voltage of 80 - 100 mV seen in the endolymphatic space of the cochlea.
107.. What is the total potential available “across the top of the hair cells”
highest voltage in the entire body 150ml
108. What is the whole nerve action potential
more then one nerve having action potential
109 Can you describe/outline the activity (in general) which occurs in the cochlea which results in the generation of a neural impulse at the base of the auditory hair cells
this is biochememically slightly different then the sodium pump hypothesis. Cochlea → 8th cranial nerve tract → ends at the cochlear nuclei → acoustic stria → many end at the SOC → lateral lemniscus → inferior Colliculus → brachium of the Inferior Colliculus → medial geniculate nuclei → final stopping point auditory radiation (nerve fibers) → auditory cochlei
110. What is meant by a neural firing rate
the faster the neurons fire it is perceived as louder and louder, firing rate I how we Encode loudness
111. What is the “volley principle”
the amount of neurons firing they all fire and by the time the last row fired then the begaining row is ready to go again. It is like in the old days when the men used to line up to fight and there would be three rows and they would rechange and the other rows are going
112. What is place theory
“tono-topic organization” all the nuclei preserver frequency by organizing tissues to be responsible for it.
113 How does the auditory system initially encode frequency
what is a ascending pathway?
the auditory nervous system is purely a ascending pathway
114. What are the major nuclei in the central auditory nervous system
Cochlear nuclei
115. What are the functions of nuclei, in general
serve as relays between nuclei, mediate reflexes ‘stampedes reflex’, integrate ‘decisions are being made’ ‘huge areas of nuclei that can sift and sort information’
116. What are the major nerve tracts in the central auditory nervous system
Simplified pathway, ascending auditory nervous system
117. Why do we say that the auditory system is a "primarily crossed" system
so we can localize sounds, this is primarily done in the brain stem most of the output of the right cochlea goes to the left side of the brain this is 80%
why do we say that the auditory system has uncrossed⬝
20% of information coming out of the left brain goes to the right brain
118. Why is the central auditory system so complex
because it does more then one thing it also does many other things such as localization and reflexes why do we hear? What do we have to hear, short pathway and long pathway with connections to many other body systems for reflexes, ability to process acoustic stimuli into language
119. What part of the central auditory system seems to be responsible for localization
short responding (short pathway)
120. what are the three major reasons why humans have “reduced auditory sensitivity”?
A) Born normal and then get diseases, neoplasm or aging B) born with normal structures and damaged by environmental influences or aging C) born with different structures or missing structures aging
121. what is meant by “types” pf hearing loss?
This is based on locations of where the dysfunction is. What we do is a hearing test with a standard air phone “air conduction” compare that to a bone conduction to tell where the problem is located. Id you have a problem when doing the air conduction but you can hear fine with bone conduction this means you problem is with you outer or middle ear.

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