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Vocabulary and Concepts from Ms. Gilbreath's semester 1 world literature class


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Author, Title, and date:

In Pride, in reasoning Pride, our error lies; All quit their sphere, and rush into the skies.
Pride is still aiming at the blest abodes,
Men would be Angels, Angels would be Gods.
Alexander Pope

An Essay on Man

Def: verse epistle
A letter in poetic form
An Essay on Man is a ____ ____ written to Pope's friend, ___ _____.
It is written in ____ ____s.
Its purpose is (term) ______.
verse epistle
Lord Bolingbroke
heroic couplets
Def: heroic couplets
pairs of rhymed line in iambic pentameter
Def: Didactic
Designed to instruct the reader
Def: Plenitude
a Platonic principle: the belief that God created all possible forms of being exactly as they should be: The universe is, therefore, fully poulated by beings perfectly suited to their roles; based on the idea that a perfect creator does not leave Gaps or make mistakes.
The GCB is full, and nothing can be added or deleted.
Def: philosophical optimism
the concept that "this is the best of all possible worlds". Although things may not seem like they are working out, they always do in the long run on a universal scale.
In the GCB: God dwells in every part of it, so the world is perfect and under His direction.
Succinctly: "WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT".
Def: Great Chain of Being (GCB)
God's rational, rdered arrangement of all things; the hierarchical pattern of all things
5 Characteristics of the GCB
1. The chain is perfect
2. The chain is eternal
3. The chain is full: nothing can be added or deleted (plenitude)
4. The chain is fixed: no being can move up or down, drop in or drop out (immutable)
5. Each being in the chain is more complex than the one below, and simpler than the one above (hierarchical): The higher a being is on the chain, the more godlike it is.
Def: Immutable
Something that is fixed and never changes.
Def: Hierarchical
Ordered (The GCB is ordered by complexity.)
Def: Integrity (of GCB)
"a sound or unimparied condition"

each link of GCB has integrity. Pope says each being is "forever separate, yet forever near"

1.Each being has its specialty
2. Each being is perfectly suited to fulfill its place
3. Each being is essential to the whole.

Pope explains: Hierarchy/gradations exist so each link can subdue the one below.
King Minos II: Family and living place
Island of Crete
Wife: Pasiphae
2 Daughters: Ariadne and Pheadra
Son: Androgeous
Minos built a beautiful altar to the god Neptune. What happened next?
Neptune was so pleased that he sent a magnificent white bull as a sacrifice to be offered on the new altar, but Minos wanted to keep it and didn't offer it up.
Minos didn't offer up the bull. What did he do? What did this cause?
He turned the gift bull out wth his royal herds and sacrificed a common bull instead.
That made Neptune made, and he decided to humiliate Minos for his ingratitude and arrogance.
Neptune decided to humiliate Minos for his ingratitude and arrogance. What did he cuose to happen?
Neptune made Pasiphae develop and unnatural sexual desire for the sacred bull.
She, determinded to have the bull, asked master craftsman Daedalus to figure out a way for her to mate with the bull.
Daedalus built a holow, wooden cow to hide her, they set it in the field, the bull mated with her, and she gave birth to a monster.
The monster Pasiphae gave birth to was called the _____. He waas the half brother of ___, ___, and ___.

Ariadne, Phaedra, and Androgeous
What happened because Pasiphae gave birth to the Minotaur?
Minos was successfully humiliated and commanded Daedalus to builld a labyrinth (under Crete) to hide the disgraceful monster.
What happened to Androgeous in Athens?
He was murdered in Athens while under the protection of King Aegeus.
What did Minos do after Androgeous was murdered?
He demanded that Athens send 7 girls and 7 boys to Crete to pay to the crime of his son's death. They were released into the labyrinth to be eaten by the Minoaur.
Who was Theseus?
the heroic son of King Aegeus of Athens
What did Theseus do to get rid of the Minotaur?
He sailed to Crete to kill it:
1. He posed as one of the tribute children and descended into the maze with them.
2. He killed it and escaped form teh maze withthe help of Ariadne.
Why did Ariadne help Theseus?
She had fallen in love with him as soon as she saw him.
What did Theseus do to Ariadne?
He abandoned her on an island and later took Phaedra as his wife.
Who was Queen Hippolyta (QH)?
Queen of the Amazons, later the mother of Hippolytus.
How did Theseus meet QH?
He and Hercules invaded her land and stole her sash.
What did QH do when Theseus and Hercules stole her sash?
She, enraged, attacked Athens (where Theseus was king) with her Amazon warriors.
Theseus beat her and took her for his wife. They had 1 son, Hippolytus.
What characteristics did Hippolytus inherit from his mom?
His aversion to his father's weakness, lust. (and probably his love of horses)
Literal Def: Amazons
Who were the Amazons?
a tribe of all female warriors. Thy severed their right breasts to accomodate the javelin and bow. They consorted with a tribe of male warriors to conceive children but only kept and raised the female progeny. They were otherwise chaste and famous for sexual restraint.
Name the book, author, and date:

"I am not in the least provoked at eh Sight of a Lawyer, a Pick-pocket, a Colonel, a Fool, a Lord, a Gamester, a Politician, a Whore-master, a Physician....
Gulliver's Travels (part IV)
Jonathan Swift
Def: Satire
a type didactic literature that seeks to correct human follies by ridiculing them
Where does teh word "satire" come from?
from Gk "satyr"= .5 man, .5 goat. "satyr plays" were bawdy, humorous plays that followed teh series fo 3 tragedies performed each day during the FestivaL of Dionysys (4ht and 3rd centuries BCE)
Def: Utopia
a perfect imacinary place; Gk for "no place"
Def: misanthrope, misanthropy
a person who hates makind; teh hatred of mankind
Def: 7 Deadly Sins (+ list)
sins for which Christians believed they would lose their souls: pride, anger, greed, gluttony, lust, envy, sloth
7 virtues, 2 kinds, their defs, and list
cardinal virtues: those that anyone, Xtian or non-believers, can achieve: prudence, temperance, courage, justice

Theological virtues: virtues expected of believers: faith, hope, charity
Song of Myself is by ___ ____ in his book ______________. Dates?
Walt Whitman; Leaves of Grass; 1855 but revised and reissued many times until his death
Def: free verse
has no regular rhythm pattern; does not necessarily rhyme
Def: colloquial speech
normal, every-day speaking
Def: catalogs
lists (of ideas, of states, of occupations, etc)
What poetic techniques does Whitman use in Song of Myself?
free verse, colloquial speech, and catalogs
Name author and title:

"...either Nature has made a great difference between woman and man, or that the civilisation which has hitherto taken place in the world has been very partial."
Mary Wollstonecraft; A Vindication of teh Rights of Woman (Author's Introduction)
Tennyson wrote _____ during the ___th century.
Ulysses; 19th century
What was Tennyson's idea?
that intellectual curiousity is heroic, unbound by age, and entertaining.
Why did Tennyson call his poem "Ulysses"?
B/c he saw in Homer's epic hero Ulysses teh perfect symbol for his idea.
What is the myth about Ulysses?
He was a Gk war hero who fought bravely in the Trojan War (10 yrs), then took 10 yrs to get home b/c of the wrath of an angry god. (Tennyson imagines what he would do in retirement.)
Tone of Ulysses:
Glamorous, romantic
"The Voyage" is by _____
What is "The Voyage" about?
It features the voyagers (unnnanmed) and the people who love to hear the tales they tell about far-off places they visit. But the voyagers do noto find glory: the world is boring at best, decadent at worst, and always unsatisfying. The disappointed voyagers lie to their audience at first, then tell the truth.
Def: Canto
"one of the main or larger divisions of a long poem"

If short, can use like a sejura to stop the poem and change its mood.
Def: Enlightenment
applying scientific theory and modes of discovery to human affairs; includes universality and order
Def: Universality
The immutability of Natural Law; things that are everywhere and for all time. (idea: human nature does not change)
Enlightenment ideas involving order:
The universe is structured in a rational order; there is a natural social/political hierarchy.
Def: Immutability
has to do with things that do not change
Def: Natural Law
Set in place by God; is universal and immutable
Def: hierarchy
system ordered based on some criterion, (simplest to most complex, etc.)
Classical Age
Age of Greece and Rome
Def: didacticism
any kind of art that is preachy, to teach the reader something
Def: Golden mean of virtue
virtuous behavior is that which is the mean between extremes of possible action
Nichomachean Ethics: author and main concept
Aristotle; GOlden mean of virtue
Aristotle: dates of life and what he wrote
384-322 BCE; Nichomachean Ethics and Poetics
Def: 3 unities, what they are for, and the book they are in
time, place, and action. A tragedy must have no more than one of each of these to be good; in Poetics

(1 day, place is local, all action leads to one main theme with no sublplots or digressions)
Poetics: subject matter and purpose
The three unities; how to write good tragedies
Def: Age of Reason, what it involved
Faith in human ability to understand the universe since it is rational:

People should turn away form the unknowable "mysteries" of God toward a beilief in God's rational, ordered arrangement of all things--teh GCB--the hierarchical pattern of all things
Def: Neoclassicism, what it involved
Belief that the CLassical Age (Greece and Rome) represents the height of mankind's achievements.

Greek and Roman law, government, and art become models for enlightened politics and art
Neoclassical Art (NCA) : 3 characteristics
Purpose is to improve mankind
Shape of art mimics the shape of the universe
Reliance on Classical Morality
How does NCA improve mankind?
formed to teach and to delight,
How does NCA mimic the shape of the universe?
eternal (artists could use classical models freely)
How does NCA rely on Classical Morality?
moderation--avoidance of excess
Mistrust of Passion--Faith in Reason
Who is Phaedra by?
Def: blank verse
iambic pentameter with no rhyme
Def: sonnet: # lines and example
15 lines, as in "The World is Too Much with Us" by Wordsworth
Romanticism: dates, what it is, and 3 topics it deals with
1776-1850; is most of all a declaration of independence from the old systems and from social customs; it deals with individualism, revolution, reform, and nature
What old systems does romanticism declare independence from?
Religion, Political Authority, and Class Hierarchy
What social customs does ROmanticism declare independence from?
Gender, Slavery, and Marriage and Property
What individualistic concepts does romanticism (Rom) deal with?
Epistemology, Egalitarianism, Antimaterialism, and Anti-Intellectualism
Def: epistemology and how Rom deals with it
study of how we know what we know; ROm holds self as authority for good and truth and knowledge
Def: egalitarianism and how Rom deals with it
equality; declares independence from class hierarchy
Why did Rom deal with revolution?
The underclasses demanded to share power (ind. fr. class hierarchy)
What power did the underclasses demand to share in ROm? What did they really want?
Political: universal suffrage and anarchy
Class: elimination of class distinctions
How does Rom deal with Reform?
Campaigns to eliminate human misery by:
Fair wages and clean working conditions
Elimination of abuse of women and children in the workplace
Marriage and divorce reforms
Religious toleration
How does Rom deal with Nature?
It elevates the status of Nature from merely God's creation:
Replaces GOd
Model for change
Antithesis of civilization
William Wordsworth (WW): dates of life and 4 things he was:
A nature poet
A critic of civilization
An egalitarian
How was WW a nature poet?
He proposed a very religious view of nature:
via pantheism: that GOd is immanent, or present in everything

He claims that nature can provide us with the same comforts and moral guidance as Christianity

He claims nature is benevolent (Latin for "good will")--it wants the best for its creatures
How is WW an anti-intellectual?
He claims all wisdom is learned through the heart, not the mind

He claims we can receive wisdom in a mood of "wise passiveness"-not by aggressively chasing after ideas

He says we learn by experience, not by reading dead men's words
How was WW a critic of civilization?
He sees money as corrupting
He is distressed and uncomfortable in cities
He can only find emotional and psychological peace in the countryside
How was WW an egalitarian?
He values the common man:
He claims poetry must speak in regular language that can be understood by anyone.
He finds common people doing jobs fit subjects for poems.
Def: Realism
Literary technique that strove to capture the world as it is--to record in detail. The idea was to "report" reality--to describe the world without prejudice or assumptions, objectively.
3 features of realism:
How is realism objective?
The artist must be invisible.
The artist must reflect, but not interpret, reality.
How is realism inclusive?
The artist should not "edit" reality.
Ugly and beautiful, boring and exciting have equal claim.
How is realism anti-Romantic?
Themes often seek to debunk romantic concepts.

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