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Biology Study Guide


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In 1665 who used a microscope to examine pieces of cork and other plant structure?
Robert Hooke
In these plant cells what did Robert Hooke see and what did he name them?
He saw tiny boxes and called them "cells"
Who was the first to view living cells with a simple microscope?
What did Leeuwenhoek call the living cells?
Cell Theory was based upon much of the early research done by which two scientists?
Leeuwenhoek and Hooke
Can most cells be seen by the naked eye?
No, most cells can only be seen by a microscope.
Is the growth of a cell limited?
Yes, because of surface area. (if volume is bigger than suface area, nutrients, oxygen, and other materials won't satisfy cell fast enough)
Do cells come in all different shapes and sizes?
Yes, they come in all different shapes and sizes which usually correlates to the function.
Shape of Red Blood Cell.
It is very small and squishy so that it can fit into thin veins.
Shape of Nerve Cell.
It has long "arms" b/c it needs to send messages quickly throughout the body.
Shape of Muscle Cell.
It is long so it can stretch and keep bones together.
What are organelles?
they are like miniature organ cells that perform specific functions.
What is compartmentalization?
It is how cells have different compartments
ex)like the different compartments in a backpack
Two main categories of cells.
they are prokaryotes and eukaryotes
What are the characteristics of a prokaryotes?
-don't have a nucleus
-don't contain membrane-bound organelles
-are bacteria
What are the characteristics of a eukaryotes?
-have a nucleus
-have a lot of different types of organelles
-any cell that is not a bacteria
What are the similarities of prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
-both have ribosomes
-cell membrane
What does a cell membrane do?
-acts as a barrier for cell
-lets only some material go through cell (is selectively permeable)
-its made up of phospholipids
What do phospholipids have?
they have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails
T or F
Many proteins are not embedded within the cell membrane for various reasons
False; the proteins are embedded within the cell.
What are peripheral proteins?
they are proteins that lay close to the membrane but are not embedded within the membrane
What are integral proteins?
they are proteins that are enbedded within the membrane. they can move throught the membrane
These proteins sometimes have a ___________ tail that serve as marker or name tag for other body cells to identify them.
T or F
the proteins also serve as receptors for hormones or other chemical messengers.
Many intergral proteins also function to ________molecules
across the cell membrane that cannot move across on their own.
transport; they transport molecules such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and lipids
What are the three points to The Cell Theory?
1. All living things are composed of one or more cells
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells

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