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Biology lab Vertebrate anatomy


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What phylum is the rat in?
What subphylum is the rat in?
the body is divided in what three regions?
head, trunk, and tail
What are four notable characteristics of the phylum Chordata?
1. presence of pharyngeal gill clefts at some point in development
2. presence of notochord (flexible rod-like structure) at some point in development; underlies the nerve cord
3. presence of a single, hollow, dorsal nerve cord
4. presence of a post anal tail
the space inbetween the inner and outer tubes
What is coelom lined with?
What are the two regions in the trunk region of vertebrates?
1. inner tube is the digestive tract
2. outer tube is the body wall of the organism
In higher vertabrates the coelom is divisible into what two cavities?
thoracic and abdominal cavities
What separates the two cavities?
diaphragm, a sheet of muscle
How are the teeth in a rat self sharpened?
incisor teeth have enamel on the front side only so that during dnawing the softer detnine is worn away behind
What is the oral cavity formed by?
the hard palate anteriorly and a boneless, soft palate posteriorly
What is the trunk subdivided into?
anterior thorax, posterior abdomen, and the dorsal back
lacrymal gland
tear galnd is large

can find by tracing tear duct
What is the function of lymph nodes?
part of the body's immune system and act to filter the body's fluids.

They are not glands!
How does the diaphragm function to help breathing?
alters the pressure within the thoracic cavity and pleural cavity, which results in inspiration and expiration, respectively
What is the function of the epiglottis?
prevents food from entering the larynx
What is tracheotomy?
lateral incision to the trachea. Using a plastic pipette pump so that hte lungs expand
What is the pericardium?
outer membrane that surrounds the heart
What are the four chambers of the heart?
R L ventricles
R L atria
lead blood into heart
lead blood out of heart
In what chamber does the vein take the blood into?
right atrium
Where does the blood go to next?
through the tricuspid into the right ventricle
Where does the blood go to after right ventricle?
into pulmonary arteries and hence to the lungs
After blood get oxgenated by the lungs where does it go next?
pulmonary veins to the left atrium
After the left atrium where does it go?
oneway valve, the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. then large aorta.
an elastic cuff that can be infalted.
How does measuring blood pressure work?
cuff exerts an external pressure that compresses the brachial artery. once external pressure equals internal no blood flow. The cuff is slowly deflated. using sthethoscope can hear tapping sound as blood spurt past the contriction in the artery. record as systolic pressure
systolic pressrue
generated by constraction of the ventricles
diastolic pressure
force generated due to the elastic walls of the brachial arteries
What is the spleen? description
part of lyumph system. colored bright red, located just dorsal to the stomach. largest lympohid organ
What is the fucntion of the spleen?
formation, storage, and destruction of blood cells
What are the 3 regions of the pharynx
What are the two passages that substances can go through in the laryngopharynx?
esophagus or the larynx
parotid ducts
liquid from this aid swallowing
primary function of esophagus
convey food from the mouth region to the stomach
thin sheets of connective tissue
purpose of stomach
store food. both physical and chemical treatment of food occurs in here. secretes HCl.
What is at the posterior end of the stomach?
pyloric sphincter which regulates the emptying of acidic chyme
three regions of small intestine
ant -> post

duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
secretion of liver and pancrease enteres where in the three regions of the small intestine?
duodenum and aid in digestion
pancreatic juice
breaks down proteins, carbohydrates and fats
large finger shaped outpocketing
specialbacteria aid the breakdown of complex carbohydrates such as cellulose

found in herbivores
function of large intestine?
water reabsorption
location of kidney
dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity
where does the blood enter in the kidney?
through the renal artery
where does the blood exit in the kidney
through the renal vein
What are nephrons?
responsible for forming urine and regulating ionic balance
Where does urine exit in the kidney?
what two things should be recognized in the cortex?
glomeruli and convoluted tubules
Where is the ovaries found?
end of each uterine horn
seminiferous tubules
sperm are produced here
where is sperm held?
where does sperm travel during ejaculation?
vas deferens

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