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Cell functions and Parts


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FUNCTION mitochondrion
transfers energy from organic compounds to ATP
FUNCTION ribosome
organized the synthesis of proteins
FUNCTION rough endoplasmic reticulum
makes large amounts of proteins to be exported from the cell or inserted into cell membrane
FUNCTION Golgi Apparatus
processes and packages substances produced by cell
FUNCTION lysosome
digests molecules, old organelles, and forgein substances
FUNCTION microfilaments and microtubules
contribute to the support, movement, and division of cells
FUNCTION cilia and flagella
to move materials over the cell surface , to propel the cell
FUNCTION nucleus
stores hereditary information in DNA; synethesizes RNA and ribosomes
FUNCTION cell wall
supports and protects cell (NOT IN ANIMALS)
FUNCTION cell membrane
controls the ease to which substances pass through the cell, selectively permeable
FUNCTION vacuole
stores enzymes and waste products
FUNCTION plastid
stores food or pigments, among other things
what is the Crista
The inner fold in mitochondria
what is ATP
useable energy
is mitochondria membrane-bound
it has 2 membranes
purpose for cristae
more surface area= more room for chemical reactions= more ATP
What do mitochondria have
how do more mitochondria arise
when existing M. grow and divide
mitochondria theory
prokaryotes may have gained protection by living inside of eukaryotes and converted chemical energy for eukaryotes
# of membranes surrounding ribosomes
what ribosomes assembalge
2 organic compounds- RNA and proteins
what is a endoplasmic reticulum
intracellular highway
FUNCTION smooth endoplasmic reticulum
synthesis of steriods in gland cells, regulation of calcium levels in muscle cells, and breakdown of toxic substances by liver cells
what is golgi apparatus made of
a series of membranes
what do lysosomes digest
proteins, carbs, lipids, DNA, and RNA, old organelles, viruses, and bacteria
what are lysosomes in
animals, fungi, and protists; rare in plants
what is actin
one od the 2 proteing filaments in a muscle cell that function in contraction
what are spindle fibers
one of the microtubules that extend across dividing ekaryotic cells, assists in movements of chromosomes
microfilaments are what?
smallest strands that are made of polymer chains of actin that contribute in cell movement and contraction of muscle cells
microtubules are what?
largest strands of the cytoskeleton that extend outward from a central pint near the nucleus
cilia vs. flagella
cilia= short, hairlike, in groups of many
flagella= long, made up of microtubules, propels unicellular organisms
what is the nuclear matrix
nuclear skeleton, shape-maintaining protein
what is the nuclear envelope
double membrane that surrounds the nucleus and the cytoplasm
DNA and proteins in nucleus of a nondividing cell
DNA and protein in a coiled, rod-shaped form that occurs during cell division
nuclear pores
small holes in nuclear envelope through which substances pass between nucleus and cytoplasm
the structure in which ribosomes are synthesized and partially assembled
copied from DNA in nucleus, directs synthesis of proteins, journeys to cytosol b4 it can synthesize
What do cell walls contain
long chains of cellulose (complex carb)- harden structure
what happens when secondary cell wall is grown
cell does not grow anymore
primary cell wall
just outside cell membrane
secondary cell wall
between primary and membrane, tough and woody
how much of cell does vacoule occupy
what does vacoule store
enzymes, metabolic wastes, and some toxic things that must be kept away
what are chloroplasts
plastids containing chlorophyll; site of photosynthesis
what are thylakoids
flattened, membranous sacs inside chloroplasts that contain most of components involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis
# of membranes surronding plastids
what do they store
starch/fats/pigments to absorb light

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