# Sampling:Sociological Methods chaper five

## Terms

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- Stratified random sampling
- A method of sampling in which sample elements are selected separately from population strate that are identified in advance by the researcher.
- Population
- The entire set of individuals or other entities to which study finding are to be generalized.
- Nonrespondent
- People or other entities who do not participate in a study although they are selected for the sample.
- Replacement Sampling
- A method of sampling in which sample elements are returned to the sampling frame after being selected, so they may be sampled again. Random samples may be selected with or without replacement.
- Census
- Research in which information is obtaind through the responses that all available members of an entire population give to questions.
- Probability of selection
- The likelihood that an alement will be selected from the population for inclusion in the sample. In a census of all the elements of a population, the probability that any particulat element will be selected is 1.0. If half the elements in the population are sampled on the basis on chance, the probability of selection for ech element is .5
- True or false: as the size of the sample as a proportion of the population decreases, so does the probability of selection?
- True
- Random digit dialing
- The random dialing by a machine of numbers within designated phone prefixes, which creates a random sample for phone surveys.
- Random sampling error
- Differences between the population and the sample that are due only to chance factors (random error) and not to systematic sampling error.
- Purposive sampling
- A nonprobability sampling method in which elements are selected for a purpose, usually because of their unique position
- Systematic bias
- Overrepresentation or underrepresentation of some population characteristics in a sample due to the method used to select the sample. Also known as systematic sampling error.
- True or false: A sample shaped by systematic sampling is a non-biased sample.
- False: it is a biased sample.
- Sampling frame
- A list of all elements or other units containing the elements in a population.
- Random number table
- A table containing lists of numbers that are ordered solely on the basis of chance; it is used for drawing a random sample.
- Population parameter
- The value of a statistic, such as a mean, computed using data for the entire population; a sample statistic is an estimate of a population parameter.
- Sampling error
- the difference between the characteristics of a ample and the characteristics of a population.
- True or false:The smaller the sampling error, the less representative the sample.
- False: the larger the sampling error the less representative the sample
- Sampling interval
- The number of cases from one sampled case to another in a systematic random sample
- Sample
- A subset of a population that is used to study the population as a whole
- Disproportionate stratified sampling
- Sampling in which elements are selected from strata in different proportions from those that appear in the population.
- Nonprobability sampling method
- Sampling methods in which the probability of selection of population elements is unknown.
- Proportionate stratified sampling
- Sampling method in which elements are selected from strata in the exact proportion to their representation in the population
- Simple random sampling
- A method of sampling in which every sample element is selected only on the basis of chance, through a random process.
- Sample statistic
- The value of a statistic, such as a mean, computed from sample data.
- Enumeration units
- Units that contain one or more elements and that are listed in a sampling frame
- Target population
- A set of elements larger than or different from the population sampled and to which the researcher would like to generalize study findings.
- Systematic random sampling
- A method of sampling in which sample elements are selected from a list or frm sequential siles, with every nth element being selected after the first element is selected randomly within the first interval.
- Periodicity
- A sequency of elements (in a list to be sampled) that varies in some regular, periodic pattern.
- Availability sampling
- Sampling in which the elements are selected on the basis on convenience.
- Random sampling
- A method of sampling that relies on a random,or chance, selection method so that every element o the sampling frame has a known probability of being selected.
- Cluster
- A naturally occurring, mixed aggregate of elements of the population
- Snowball sampling
- A method of sampling in which sample elements are selected as they are identified by successive informants or interviewees
- Inferential statistics
- A mathematical tool for estimating how likely it is that a statistical result based on data from a random sample is representative of the population from which the sample is selected
- Probability sampling method
- A sampling method that relies on a random, or chance, selection method so that the probability of selection of population elements is known.
- Element
- Individual members of the population whose characteristics are to be measured.
- Sampling unit
- Units listed at each stage of a multistage sampling design
- Quota sampling
- A nonprobability sampling method in which elements are selected to ensure that the sample represents certain characteristics in proporation to their prevalance in the population
- Cluster sampling
- Sampling in which elements are selected in two or more stages, with the first stage being the random selection of naturally occurring clusters and the last stage being the random selection of elements within clusters
- Representative sample
- A sample that "looks like" the population from which it was selected. The distribution of characteristics among the elements of a representative sample is the same as the distribution of those characteristics among the total population.
- True or false: In an unrepresentative sample, some characteristics are overrepresented or underrepresented.
- True