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Developmental Psych Test 2


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how much does the average child grow a year?
-2.5 inches in height
-5-7 pounds
-% of height and weight decreases with each additional year
-lost top heavy look (trunk lengthens)
do girls or boys have more fatty tissue?
do girls or boys have more muscle tissue?
two most important contributors to height differences
-ethnic origin and nutrition
-ex. urban kids are taller than rural, middle SES are taller than lower, first borns are taller than laterborns, black american are taller than white
why some children are shorter
-congenital problems (ex. mom smoking)
-physical problems (ex. chronically sick)
-emotional difficulties (ex. children who are physically abused or neglected)
changes in local patterns within brain from age 3-6
-rapid growith in frontal lobe areas involved in planning and organizing new actions, andin maintaining attention to tasks
changes in local patterns within brain from age 6-puberty
-rapid growith takes place in temporal and parietal lobes, especially areas that play major roles in language and spatial relations
gross motor skills
-motor skills that involve l arge muscle activities, such as walking
gross motor skills at age 3
-child is starting to master simple movements (running, jumping)
gross motor skills at age 4
-becomeing more adventurous with movements (hop down steps)
gross motor skills at age 5
-perform stunts with movements (jump off tree)
fine motor skills
-motor skills that involve more finely tuned movements such as finger dexterity
fine motor skills at age 3
-very clumsy, but progressing
fine motor skills at age 4
-more precise (stategies to do things)
fine motor skills at age 5
-very coordinated (hand, arm, body coordination down pat)
-right is dominant in all cultures
-boys more likely to be lefties
-preference around age 3
-genetics appear to strongly affect it
-lefties are more likely to have reading problems
-lefties tend to have good visual-spatial skills and the ability to imagine spacial layouts (arquitecture, art)
how many calories do kids in early childhood need?
-fewer than before
-1700-1800 a day
"moderatly low fat diet"
calories from fat, calories from saturated fat
-need about 35% of total calories from fat
-less than 10% of saturated fat
leading cause of death
-accidents (auto, drowning, poisening)
other special concerns about children's illness and health
-exposure to parental smoking, low SES(poverty, worse nutrition), lead poisening, homelessness (shelters are unsafe)
piaget's preoperational stage
-age 2-7
-children have become more sophisticated in their use of symbolic thought, but are NOT YET ABLE TO USE LOGIC
theories of mind
-a person's ideas about connections among thoughts, beliefs, and behavior
-formed when children start to reflect on their won thought processes
Henry Wellman

-one ofthe leading researchers on the "theory of mind"

-the first to investigate the theory
-the tendency to focus attention on the most obvious and striking characteristic of an object while ignoring others
-thinking is guided by appearances rather than logic
-ex. liquid in different shaped containers
-inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point
-for Piaget, THE MOST SERIOUS DEFICIENCY of preoperational thinking, the one that underlies all others
-failure to distsinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own
animistic thinking
-the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions
-Piaget regarded egocentrism as responsible for preoperational children's animistic thinking
"conscience" is the governor of ...
whether a child leaves this stage with initiative or guilt depends in large part on...
-how parents respond to his initiated activities
-have to give the child freedom and opportunity to initiate (during play, decision making)
-must support initiative and answer questions
-don't make them feel that their initiatives are bad, annoying, or stupid
-sense of moral goodness or blame worthiness of ones own intentions, conduct, or character
self understanding is based on ...
-various roles and membership categories (girl, red hair, daisy)
self understanding begins with ... (ages)
-self recognition (starts around 18 months)
-3 year old: hair color, name, age
-5 year old: address, siblings, what they can do
-7 year old: activities, likes/dislikes
self conscious emotion
-pride, shame, embarrassment, guilt
-apprears to develop in the last half of the second year of life
-especially influenced by parents' responses to the child's behavior (don't want to make them feel unnecessary negative emotions)
heteronomous morality
-based on obedience to authority, as well as centered around egocentrism
-age 2-7
-rigid thinking about moral concepts, child cannot imagine more than one way of looking at a moral issue, rules cannot be bent, rules come from authority, behavior is right/wrong, offences deserve punishment regardless of reason
autonomous morality
-characterized by more flexibility and autonomy, as well as centered around "equal treatment for all"
-age 7-11
-mutual respect and cooperation, diverse interaction w/people and situations, less rigid, consider more than one aspect of a situation (they consider intentions)
moral development/reasoning (perspective taking)
-to see from the viewpoint of others and not be as egocentric (empathy, compassion)
Kohlberg's stages of moral understanding
-used a clinical interviewing procedure to study moral development
-emphasized that it is the way an individual reasons about the dilemma, not the content of the response
Heinz dilemma
-the most famous of Kohlberg's clinical interviewing procedures
-presents the choice betweenthe value of obeying the law (not stealing) and the value of human life (saving a dying person)
moral behavior is influenced by ...
-processes of reinforcement, punishment,imitation
-the situation, self control (delay of gratification can improve self control)
moral feelings
-positive feelings contribute to moral development
-empathy (reacting to another person's feeling, with emotional response taht is similar to person's feelings)
gender identity
-what you relate to in terms of female/male, sense of being female/male
-age 3
gender role
-what society has constructed for expectations of female/male (how to act)
-age 3
social influences on gender
-parents (most influencial in early years)
-school, peers, media, brothers and sisters
parental influences on gender
-fathers are more likely to enforce gender roles
-mothers tend to be more nurturing towards girls
peer influences on gender
-age 3-6, more likely to play with same sex
authoritarian parents
-place firm limits and controls on the child and allow little verbal exchange
-associated with children's social incompetence
authoritative parents
-encourage child to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions
-associated with children's social competence
indulgent parents
-place few demands or controls on children
-associated with children's social incompetence (lack of self control)
neglectful parents
-very uninvolved in child's life
-associated with children's social incompetence (lack of self control)
body growth
-slow and consistant
-period of calm before rapid growth spurt in adolescence
-gain 5-7 pounds/year
-skeletal and muscular systems increase in size
proportional changes
-most pronouced physical changes
-head circumferance, waist circumferance, and leg length decrease in relation to body weight
motor development
-smoother and more coordinated (older kids can run, climg, swim,etc)
-gain greater control of body (can sit and attend for longer periods of time, however elementary school kids become more fatigued by long periods of sitting than running)
-improvments in fine motor skills (increased myelination of the CNS, hands become steadier, write rather than print, smaller letter size)
who outperforms in gross and fine motor skills?
-boys outperform in gross motor skills
-girls outperform in fine motor skills
ways to get children to excercise
-offer more physical activity programs run by volunteers
-improve physical fitness activities in school
-have kids plan community/school activities that interest them
-encourage parents to focus more on physical activities and excercise more
are kids excercising enough?
-in 1997, only 22% of kids were physically active for 30 minutes a day
-too busy watching tv, on the computer, playing video games
positive consequences of sports
-provide excercise, learn how to compete, self-esteem, develop peer relations and friendships
negative consequences of sports
-pressure to achieve and win, physical injuries, distraction from acedemic work, unrealistic expectations for success as an athlete
most common cause of injury and death
motor vehicle accidents
second leading cause of death in children 5-14
child cancers mainly attack...
-white blood cells, brain, bone, lymph system, muscles, kidney,NS
most common cancer in children
-leukemia (bone marrow makes abundance of WBC that don't function properly, these crowd out normal cells, making child susceptible to infection
-girls more than boys
-obesity at age 12 results in 75% chance of obesity as adult
-obese due to inadequate level of excercise
risk factor associated with obesity
-develop pulmonary problems, hip problems, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, how self esteem, depression
percentage of kids in USA with disabilities
-10% recieve special education of related services
learning disability
-problems with listening, concentrating, speaking, thinking
are boys or girls more likely to have a learning disability?
-boys are 3 times more likely
-greater biological vulnerability in boys
-referral bias: teachers are more likely to refer boys because of disruptive behavior
the most common problem that characterizes children with a learning disability
-reading (especially phonological skills: ability to understand how sounds and letters match up to make words)
-severe impairment in ability to read and spell
children with a learning disability often have difficulties in...
-handwriting, spelling, or composition (writing may be very slow, illegible, many spelling errors since can't match sounds and letters)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
-children consistently show one or more of the following over a period of time (1)inattention (2)hyperactivity (3)impulsivity
children with ADHD are diagnosed as either
-ADHD with predominantly inattention
-ADHD with predominantly hyperactivity/impulsivity
-ADHD with both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity
diagnoses and treatment has increased...
-some experts attribute this to increased awareness, others say that kids are diagnosed without undergoing intensive valuation
occurs more in boys or girls?
-4-9 times more in boys
school failure rate for kids with ADHD?
-2-3 times more than other students
recommended intervention for ADHD
-combination of acedemic, behavioral, and medical intervention
concrete operational period
-7-11 years
-child can solve problems logically if they are focused on the here and now, but cannot think abstractly
-the ability to pass conservation tasks provides clear evidence of operations
-mental actions that obey logical rules
-focusing on several aspects of a problem and relatingthemrather than centering on just one
-think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to starting point
-children are capable of passing Piaget's "class inclusion problem."
-more aware of classification heirarchies and can focus on relations between general categories and two specific categories at the same time
-ex. child is shown a dozen flowers (8 red roses and 4 yellow daffodils). Are there more red roses than there are flowers? they know this doesn't make sense
-see this in play, sorting baseball cards, collections
-the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
-can easily arrange sticks of different lengths
spatial reasoning
-children have a more accurate understanding of space
-capable of mental rotation
-directions: capable of "mental walk" strategies
-maps: landmarks, very organized, very detailed
important limitation of concrete operational thought
-children think in an organized, logical fashion only when dealing with concrete info they can perceive directly. Their mental operations work poorly with abstract ideas that are not apparent in the real world

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