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Berkner USAD [Science]


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What cranial bone borders all four of the major cranial sutures?
Parietal bone.
Name the four major cranial sutures.
Coronal, Lambdoid, Squamous, and Sagittal.
What two bones does the coronal suture border?
Parietal bone and frontal bone.
What two bones does the lambdoid suture border?
Parietal bone and occipital bone.
What two bones does the squamous suture border?
Parietal bone and temporal bone.
How many bones comprise the average human adult skeletal system?
How many bones are located in the skull?
How many bones comprise the vertebral column?
What is the name of the most superior bone in the vertebral column?
What is the name of the second most superior bone in the vertical column?
List the 5 regions of the vertebral column, going from the most superior to the most inferior.
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx.
How many bones comprise the cervical vertebrae?
How many bones comprise the thoracic vertebrae?
How many bones comprise the lumbar vertebrae?
Before the sacrum becomes fused, how many bones is it comprised of?
What 4 (Only 2 different bones) bones comprise the pectoral girdle?
2 scapulas and 2 clavicles.
What type of bone is the patella?
Which bone has outstretched greater and lesser bones and has a ragged, mothlike shape?
Sphenoid bone.
How many pairs of ribs are present in the average human adult body?
How many pairs of rib bones are "true ribs"?
When was Galen born?
Circa 129 A.D.
What was the name of the collection of Galen's more than 130 medical treatises?
De usu partium (On the Usefulness on the Parts of the Body).
What medical practice was prohibited during Galen's time?
Early in his life, Galen was doctor to which group of people?
Many of Galen's anatomical theories were incorrect because they were based on what?
Dissections of animals.
Before Galen, arteries were thought to have carried what?
Galen discovered what aspect of the circulatory system?
Arteries carry blood. He also made important observations on muscles, bones, and the heart.
Where did Galen gain his eduacation?
Asclepion at Pergamum. He read texts from the Library of Alexandria.
What did Galen believe to be the greatest necessity to curing ailments?
Clinical observation.
When did Galen rise to prominence?
When he became surgeon to the emperor's son.
What was the main animal that Galen dissected in his anatomical research?
Barbury apes.
According to the USAD packet, what did Galen lay the groundwork for?
The connection between anatomy and physiology, also called the structure/functure relationship.
What did Galen recognize as important in both movement and paralysis?
The spinal cord.
What did Galen correlate to the process of respiration?
The diaphragm.
Galen recognized structures such as the liver, kidney, and heart, but did he place them correctly in the human body?
No; his locations of the organs were incorrect.
Which early anatomist is known as the "father" of Western medicine?
During what time period did Hippocrates live?
460-370 B.C.
Hippocrates believed that an appropriate cure involved what two aspects?
Diet improvement/ environment change.
What theory did HIppocrates use?
Humoral theory.
Who was the first to combine both theory and clinical observation?
Did the Greek physician Hippocrates ever dissect a corpse?
What oath must modern graduating medical students invoke?
The Hippocratic Oath.
What is the Latin name of the Hippocratic Collection?
Corpus Hippocratium.
How many volumes are contained in the Hippocratic Collection?
Approximately 70.
Name ten works listed in the USAD guide as belonging in the Hippocratic Collection.
On Airs, Waters and Places; On Ancient Medicine; Aphorisms; On the Articulations; The Book of Prognostics; On Fistulae; On Fractures; On Injuries of the Head; Of the Epidemics; On Regimen in Acute Disease; On the Surgery.
During what time period did Aristotle live?
Circa 384 - 322 B.C.
According to the USAD guide, what field did Aristotle lay the foundation for?
Comparative anatomy; He wanted to relate parts of the human body to those of animals.
Who was the author of De partibus animalium (On the Parts of Animals)?
Who wrote De generative animalium (On the Generation of Animals)?
In Aristotle's De generative animalium and De partibus animalium, animals from what region were analyzed?
Aristotle attempted to chronicle the anatomy and physiology of how many indigenous species of the Mediterrean?
Over 500.
Aristotle is known for his distinction between nerves and what other tissue?
What part of the cardiovascular system did Aristotle describe?
The major arteries and their branches into smaller blood vessels.
Who does the USAD guide regard as the first true anatomist?
In one of Aristotle's experiments, Aristotle dicovered the development of the heart on the 4th day of growth of what kind of embryo? (What animal?)
Chick embryo.
What two theories/fields of genetics and reproduction did Aristotle carry out experiments?
Pangenesis and embryology.
Since the term "pangenesis" was not coined during Aristotle's time, the term actually came from which prominent biologist?
Charles Darwin.
What were the scholars at the medical school at Alexandria, Egypt doing to discover the relationship between structure and function?
Dissecting cadavers.
During what time period did Herophilus live?
335 - 280 B.C. (55 years)
Who is often called the "father of anatomy"?
What time period did Erasistratus live in?
300 - 260 B.C. (40 years)
Allegedly, how many human cadavers did the medical school at Alexandria dissect?
Over 600.
How did Erasistratus contribute to the medical school at Alexandria?
He documented their anatomical discoveries.
Who conducted the first documented effort in neuroscience?
What did Herophilus recognize as the center of the nervous system?
The brain.
Who distinguished the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
Who distinguished sensory nerves from motor nerves?
Who proclaimed the brain to be the "source of thought"?
Who was the author of Anatomica (On Anatomy)?
Name two facets of the brain that Herophilus describes in his work, Anatomica.
Cerebral ventricles and venous sinuses.
What is the "duodenum"?
The passage from the stomach to the intestine.
To whom is the term "duodenum" attributed to?
What term did Herophilus use to describe the passage from the stomach to the intestine?
Dodekadaktylon; It was named thusly due to the passage's estimated length of 12 finger-lengths.
Herophilus recognized that nerve damage could ultimately lead to what?
Of what organization did Erasistratus eventually become the leader of?
The Alexandrian School of Anatomy.
Who was the first to formulate a "pneumatic theory" that described the heart as a pump?
Who was the first to delineate the auricles of the heart, the cardiac valves and many major blood vessels?
Identify 8 of the blood vessels that Erasistratus described.
The aorta, the pulmonary artery and vein, the hepatic artery and vein, the renal vessels, and both the superior and inferior vena cava.
What is "pneuma"?
"Vital air".
What did Erasistratus believe the nerves were a channel for?
The pneuma, or vital air.
Erasistratus believed that the organs were served by a three-fold network consisting of which three systems?
Arteries, veins, and nerves.
According to Erasistratus, what did veins carry?
According to Erasistratus, what did arteries carry?
Animal spirits.
In the Greek four-humor model, what four humors were described?
Blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.
Before the humoral theory, what did the Greeks believe that caused disease?
Divine and supernatural causes.
According to the Greeks, what were the three stages of disease?
An imbalance between the humors, a "boiling" reaction to the imbalance (fever), and a discharge of the imbalanced humor or death.
Which thoery did Aristotle refute in favor of his embryonic theory?
The preformation theory that sperm/egg cells held miniature adults that grow during development.
What three tools were used in the Greek methods of healing bones and joints?
Bandages, splinters, and mechanical devices.
In the Greek practice of herbal therapy, what two reagents were used?
Mineral spirits and plant extracts.
According to Erasistratus, what did the nerves transport?
Nervous spirits.
Besides Herophilus, who differentiated the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
Who discovered the cerebral convolutions, the ventricles, and the meninges?
What three spirits did Galen belive were injected into the veins, arteries and nerves by the liver, heart, and brain (his tripartite system)?
Natural, vital, and animal spirits.
Did Galen believe in the humoral theory?
What is Ibn Sina's Latin name?
Summarize the progress of medicine during the Middle Ages.
Virtually nonexistent.
According to the USAD resource guide, which work was the most influential Arab text?
The Canon of Medicine.
During what years did Ibn Sina live?
980-1037 A.D.
Who was the author of The Canon of Medicine?
Ibn Sina.
From which country did Ibn Sina hail?
Approximately how many works did Ibn Sina author?
Over 400.
What three topics did Ibn Sina focus on?
Medicine, philosophy, and mathematics.
When was the University of Padua established?
When was the University of Bologna established?
Circa 1088.
According to the USAD guide, who is regarded as the founder of modern anatomy?
Andreas Vesalius.
During what years did Vesalius live?
In which renowned university was Vesalius a professor?
University of Padua.
At the University of Padua, what position did Vesalius hold?
Professor of surgery and anatomy.
What was the Tabulae Sex?
A collection of labeled illustrations.
When was the Tabulae Sex published?
Who authored the Tabulae Sex?
When was De Humani Corporis Fabrica published (On the Fabric of the Human Body)?

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