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Pathology Recall: Respiratory Sys


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What is the acinus?
the basic unit of lung function

includes respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli, and a capillary bed derived form the pulmonary artery
What cells make up the alveolar septa?
Type I alveolar cells, endothelium, and interstitial cells
What cells secrete surfectant?
Type II cells
What are Pores of Kohn?
the minute openings in the alveolar septae through which permit passage of bacteria, fluid, and alveolar macrophages
Whta types of cells line the bronchii?
pesudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells

mucous secreting goblet cells
What types of cells line the bronchioles?
columnar cells

secretory Clara cells
How do congenital cysts arise?

What is the most common type of congenital cyst?
formed by an abnormal detachment of primitive forgut, most often located in the hilum or middle mediastinum

brochogenic cysts are the most common
What is bronchopulmonary sequestration?
mass of isolated non functioning lung tissue with an abberrant blood supply (derived from the aorta or its branches) and NO normal connection to the airway system
What are atelectasis?
incomplete expansion of the lungs or collapse leding to reduced oxygenation and predisposition to infection
What are the 3 types of atelectasis?
Obstructive atelectasis - follows complete obstruction of an airway

Compressive - follows expansion of the pleural space by fluid

Patchy - develops when there is loss of pulmonary surfactant
What is pulmonary edema and how does it impact lung function?
intra-alveolar accumulation of fluid due to hemodynamic disturbances or inc in capillary permeability

impairs normal respiratory functionand predisposes to infection
List 2 mechanisms that lead to pumonary edema?
hemodynamic disturbances: L heart failure or overload leads to increased hydrostatic pressure or decresed oncotic pressure

microvascular injury: inflammatory alveolar rxns(due to drugs,infection, sepsis, uremia --> incresead capillary perm and leakage of fluids and proteins into interstitial space
What histological findings are associated with Pulmonary edema?
engorged capillaries

filling of the intra-alveolar spaces by granular pink precipitate

alveolar microhemorrhages

hemosiderin laden macrophages (may be associated with interstitial fibrosis)
Define Adult respiratory distress syndrome. (ARDS)
diffuse alveolar damage with resultant increase in alveolar cappilary permeability, causing leakage of protein rich fluid into alveoli and formation of intra-alveolar hyaline membranes composed of fibrin and cellular debris

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