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Chemistry Vocab Chap. 2 and Nuclear


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alpha particle
two protons and two neutrons bound together and emitted from
the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
beta particle
an electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of
radioactive decay
daughter nuclide
a nuclide produced by the decay of a parent nuclide
decay series
a series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached
electron capture
the process in which an inner orbital electron is captured by
the nucleus of its own atom
nuclear fission
a process in which a very heavy nucleus splits into more-stable
nuclei of intermediate mass
nuclear fusion
the combining of light-mass nuclei to form a heavier, more
stable nucleus
a testable statement
scientific method
a logical approach to solving problems by observing and
collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating
theories that are supported by data
a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been
selected for study during an experiment or observation
a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are
conversion factor
a ratio derived from the equality between two different units
that can be used to convert from one unit to the other
derived unit
a unit that is a combination of SI base units
(Le Système International d’Unités) the measurement system accepted
a measure of the gravitational pull on matter
the ratio of mass to volume or mass divided by volume
something that has magnitude, size, or amount
the amount of space occupied by an object
the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the
quantity measured
directly proportional
two quantities that give a constant value when one is divided
by the other
indirectly proportional
two quantities that have a constant mathematical
the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in
the same way
significant figure
any digit in a measurement that is known with certainty plus
one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated
percent error
a value calculated by subtracting the experimental value from the
accepted value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then
multiplying by 100
scientific notation
numbers written in the form M ×10n where the factor M is a
number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number

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