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"Big Sister" policy
a U.S. policy formulated by James G. Blaine in the 1880s and aimed to rally the Latin American nations behind the United States' leadership and to open Latin America markets to U.S. traders. Blaine served as Secretary of State in 1881 in the cabinet of President James Garfield and again from 1889 to 1892 in the cabinet of President Benjamin Harrison. As part of the policy, Blaine arranged for and lead as the first president the First International Conference of American States in 1889.
Henry Ford
he American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry.
War Industries Board
supervised the production of miitary supplies also fixes prices and set quotas on factories. introduced inter-changable parts (standardization of weapons)
Food Administration
encouraged farming (eventually led to dustbowl). Run by Herbert Hoover, and allows him to get his name out there(meatless modays). leads to great depression through overproduction and loans
Open Door Policy, 1899
a concept in foreign affairs stating that, in principle, all nations should have equal commercial and industrial trade rights in China. america wanted equal access
Sedition Act, 1918
outlawed speaking against the government
william seward
a Governor of New York, United States Senator and the United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.
Albert Fall
a United States Senator from New Mexico and the Secretary of the Interior under President Warren G. Harding, notorious for his involvement in the Teapot Dome scandal.
Norman Thomas
was a leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America.was a leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America.
Joseph Pulitzer
served brilliantly against the Cuban rebels, and commanded a corps of volunteers specially raised for him in Havana. He distinguished himself in the expedition to Santo Domingo in many fights, and especially in a daring reconnaissance with 1500 men he killed 120 in the heart of the enemy's lines, for which he got the cross with laurels of San Fernando.
Platt Amendment, 1901
United States federal law passed on March 2, 1901 that stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba since the Spanish-American War, and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations until 1934
"American Plan"
the term that most U.S. employers in the 1920s used to describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions. The policy promoted union-free open shops. As a result, union membership in 1920 shrank from 5 million to some 3.6 million in 1923.
Charles Evans Huges
a lawyer and Republican politician from the State of New York. He served as Governor of New York (1907-1910), United States Secretary of State (1921-1925), Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1910-1916) and Chief Justice of the United States (1930-1941). He was the Republican candidate in the 1916 U.S. Presidential election, losing to Woodrow Wilson.
WHite Man's Burden
a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. It was originally published in the popular magazine McClure's in 1899, with the subtitle The United States and the Philippine Islands.[1] "The White Man's Burden" was written in regard to the U.S. conquest of the Philippines and other former Spanish colonies.
David Lloyd George
he first, and only Welsh Prime Minister that Britain has had so far. He was Prime Minister throughout the later half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace.
charles francis adams
son of President John Quincy Adams and Louisa Catherine Johnson and the grandson of President John Adams and Abigail Adams, was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat and writer.
Vittorio Orlando
n Italian diplomat and political figure. He was born in Palermo, Sicily. His father, a landed gentleman, delayed venturing out to register his son's birth for fear of Giuseppe Garibaldi's 1,000 patriots who had just stormed into Sicily on the first leg of their march to build an Italian nation.[1]
"Gentleman's Agreement", 1907
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan concerning the controversial issues of immigration and racial segregation.
a brittish passanger ship topreedoed by germans. killed many Americans and made America very angry
Ku Klux Klan
reemerged ont he basis of nativism. gained 5 million members by late 1920's in additions to supporters who didn't join. (1/2 million marched on washignton in 1925)
Sacco-Vanzetti Case, 1921
two italian immigrants were arrested for armed robbery and murder. they were tried and convicted with hardly any evience. caused faer among immigrants that they would be prosecuted next
foraker act, 1900
United States federal law that established civilian (limited popular) government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had been newly acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War.
Fansico (Pancho) Villa
a Mexican Revolutionary general. As commander of the División del Norte (Division of the North), he was the veritable caudillo of the Northern Mexican state of Chihuahua
Herbet Hoover
ran the food administrations (meatless modays...)
Charles Lindbergh
an American pilot famous for the first solo, non-stop flight across the Atlantic, from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Paris in 1927 in the Spirit of St. Louis. In the ensuing deluge of fame, Lindbergh became the world's best-known aviator.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treay, 1903
a source of conflict between Panama and the United States since its creation. to negotiate the terms with several U.S. officials, most prominently, Secretary of State John Hay. The two men negotiated the terms of sale for the building of a Panama Canal and for a Panama Canal Zone surrounding the canal
Boxer Rebellion, 1900
a Chinese uprising from November 1899 to September 7, 1901, against foreign influence in areas such as trade, politics, religion and technology that occurred in China during the final years of the Manchu rule (Qing Dynasty).
National Origins Act, 1924
result of the anti-immigrant movement. 2% of the total from any country already in america could enter (based on 1890 census, when mostly only western europeans were coming). wanting to restict communism from entering
National War Labor Board
composed of representatives from business and labor. It was chaired by former President William Howard Taft. Its purpose was to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers. Capitalizing on labor shortages during America's entrance into World War I, unions led by Samuel Gompers under the American Federation of Labor organized mass strikes for tangible gain. With more than 1200 cases heard the board ruled in favor of labor more often than not.
Emilio Aguinaldo
a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role in Philippine independence during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Philippine-American War that resisted American occupation. He eventually pledged his allegiance to the US government.
"Bonus Army" 1932
an assemblage of about 17,000 World War I veterans, accompanied by their families and other affiliated groups, who demonstrated in Washington, DC, during the spring and summer of 1932. The marchers were seeking immediate cash payment of Service Certificates granted eight years previously by the Adjusted Service Certificate Law of 1924.
Dawes Plan, 1924
sets up a schedule for germany to pay back the european countries. doesn't work (america is trying to get back money it loaned during the war
General Valeriano Weyler
served brilliantly against the Cuban rebels, and commanded a corps of volunteers specially raised for him in Havana. He distinguished himself in the expedition to Santo Domingo in many fights, and especially in a daring reconnaissance with 1500 men he killed 120 in the heart of the enemy's lines, for which he got the cross with laurels of San Fernando.
Emergency Quota Act, 1921
result ofthe anti-immigrant movement. 3% of the total form any country already in american could enter (based on 1910 census)
Babe Ruth
an American Major League baseball player from 1914 to 1935. Named the greatest baseball player in history in various surveys and rankings, his home run hitting prowess and charismatic personality made him a larger than life figure in the "Roaring Twenties"
Dollar Dpilomacy
term used to describe the efforts of the United States — particularly under President William Howard Taft — to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.[1] The term was originally coined by President Taft, who claimed that U.S. operations in Latin America went from "warlike and political" to "peaceful and economic". It was also used in Liberia, where American loans were given in 1913.
Harlem Renaissance
first time that blacks celebrated their own culture. jazz invented in new orleans (first origional american music)
Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
a diplomatic note signed between the United States and the Empire of Japan on 2 November 1917 over their disputes with regards to China.
treaty of paris, 1899
signed on December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. america recieved cuba, guam, puerto rico, and the phillipenes
Red Scare
1917-1920, periods were characterized by heightened suspicion of Communists and other radicals, and the fear of widespread infiltration of Communists in U.S. government. caused by labor unsrest, socialists, and the rusian revolution
Hay-Pauncefot Treaty, 1901
nullified the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 and gave the United States the right to create and control a canal across Central America, connecting the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.
led by henry cabot lodge. accepted the treay of versailles with some changes
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 1850
between america and great brittain over the project of an interoceanic canal across Nicaragua, each signatory being jealous of the activities of the other in Central America
Dupuy deLome
set off an 1898 diplomatic incident, was written by Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish Minister with the Portfolio of Cuban Affairs at the Spanish Embassy in Washington, D.C. The letter, which was intended to be private, was sent to his friend, Don Jose Canelejas, a Spanish official in Havana and was stolen from the Post Office in Havana and released by Cuban revolutionists to Hearst's newspaper. In it, the minister wrote disparagingly of US President William McKinley "... McKinley is: weak and catering to the rabble, and, besides, a low politician, who desires to leave a door open to me and to stand well with the jingoes of his party." On February 9, 1898, the letter was published in the New York Journal.
Model T
n automobile produced by Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1927. The Model T set 1907 as the historic year that the automobile came into popular usage. It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car that "put America on wheels"; some of this was because of Ford's innovations, including assembly line production instead of individual hand crafting, as well as the concept of paying the workers a wage proportionate to the cost of the car, so that they would provide a ready made market
Alfred E. Smith
the first catholic to run for president. beat in a landslide during the 1928 election by Hoover
Taft-Katsura Agreement, 1905
a secret diplomatic memorandum signed between United States Secretary of War William Howard Taft and Prime Minister of Japan Katsura Taro on 29 July 1905. In the agreement, the United States recognized Japan's sphere of influence in Korea; in exchange, Japan recognized the United States's sphere of influence in the Philippines.
Root-Takhira Agreement, 1908
consisted of an official recognition of the territorial status quo as of November 1908, affirmation of the independence and territorial integrity of China. between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan negotiated between U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese ambassador Takahira Kogoro.
Harry Daugherty
an American politician. He is best known as a Republican Party boss, and member of the Ohio Gang, the name given to the group of advisors surrounding president Warren G. Harding.
insular cses
the Supreme Court said that full constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control.. the court's response to a major issue of the United States presidential election, 1900 and the American Anti-Imperialist League
Roosevelt Corollary
a substantial alteration (called an "amendment") of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted the right of the United States to intervene to stabilize the economic affairs of small nations in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts. The alternative was intervention by European powers, especially Britain and Germany, which loaned money to the countries that did not repay. The catalyst of the new policy was Germany's aggressiveness in the Venezuela affair of 1902-03
William Randolph Hearst
a leading newspaper publisher. The son of self-made millionaire George Hearst, he became aware that his father had received a northern California newspaper, The San Francisco Examiner, as payment of a gambling debt. Still a student at Harvard, he asked his father to give him the newspaper to run. In 1887, he became the paper's publisher and devoted long hours and much money to making it a success. Crusading for civic improvement and exposing municipal corruption, he greatly increased the paper's circulation.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Fordney McCumber Tariff, 1922
eflected American isolationist inclinations following World War I. Congress adopted a laissez-faire attitude toward regulating business and pro-business attitude in passing the tariff and in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to the postwar Allied governments who returned the favor by buying American goods and by cracking down on strikes.
rough riders
the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War.
zimmerman note
was to offer Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War, specifically the American states of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Eckardt was also instructed to urge Mexico to help broker an alliance between Germany and Japan. made america very angry, germany asked for help of mexico
referred to a "new breed" of young women who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to the new Jazz music, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior. The flappers were seen as brash for wearing excessive makeup, drinking, treating sex in a casual manner, smoking, driving automobiles, and otherwise flouting conventional social and sexual norms.
Espionage Act, 1917
censored newspapers and magazines. nativism
"Big Stick" diplomacy
the slogan describing U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The United States, he claimed, had the right not only to oppose European intervention in the Western Hemisphere, but it could be seen as a later, more subtle version of Gunboat Diplomacy. The idea led to the expansion of the U.S. Navy and greater involvement in world affairs. This in turn led to the Dollar Diplomacy in the following Taft administration.
The Jazz Singer, 1927
a 1927 American musical film. The first feature-length motion picture with synchronized dialogue sequences, its release heralded the commercial ascendance of the "talkies" and the decline of the silent film era.
DeLima v. Bidwell, 1901
The DeLima Sugar Importing Company sued the New York City collector of customs to recover duties on sugar imported from Puerto Rico after 1899, when Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States. DeLima argued that The Port of New York City had no jurisdiction to collect duties because Puerto Rico was annexed by the United States. one of the first insular cases
James G Blaine
a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland
Teapot Dome
a reference to an oil field on public land in Wyoming, so named because of a massive boulder that looks like a teapot overlooking the field. It is also a phrase commonly applied to the scandal that troubled the administration of United States President Warren G. Harding.
Portsmouth Peace Conference, 1905
formally ended the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905 after negotiations at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard near Portsmouth, New Hampshire in the United States. TR mediated and left both sides unhappy
Schlieffen Plan
the German General Staff's late 19th century/early 20th century overall strategic plan for victory both on the Western Front against France and against Russia in the east, taking advantage of expected differences in the three countries' speed in preparing for war. In modified form, it was executed to near victory in the first month of World War I
senator albert j Beveridge
an American historian and United States Senator from Indiana. He was born in Ohio, admitted to the Indiana bar in 1887 and practiced law in Indianapolis. He graduated from Indiana Asbury University (now DePauw University) in 1885, with a Ph.B. degree. He was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. He was known as a compelling orator, delivering speeches supporting territorial expansion by the U.S. and increasing the power of the federal government.
Bernard Naruch
an American financier, stock market speculator, statesman, and presidential adviser. After his success in business, he devoted his time toward advising Democratic presidents Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt on economic matters.
Jones Act, 1916
known as the Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916, replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 (Philippine Bill of 1902) that served as the de facto initial constitution of the Philippine Islands after it was ceded by Spain to the United States by virtue of the Treaty of Paris. It provided the Philippine Islands the framework for the creation of an autonomous government in preparation for the grant of independence by the United States Government. It also created a bicameral Philippine Legislature composed of a Senate and a House of Representatives
Smoot-Hawley Tariff, 1930
reduced the McCumber Tariff even further 60%. spread the depression around the world.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890
Victoriano Huerta
a Mexican military officer and president of Mexico.
Al Capone
ran illegal liqur industry in chicago. organized crime which emerged with prohibition
Committee on Public Information
advertisements made in order to convince americans of the annti'german feelings. also tried to make americans join the army and pay liberty bonds (loans to the government)
Hay-Herran Treaty, 1903
Had it been ratified, it would have allowed the United States to acquire a renewable 99-year lease on a 6-mile wide strip across Panama (which was then part of Colombia) for $10 million and an annual payment of $250,000.[1][2][3] It was ratified by the United States Senate on March 14, but it was not ratified by the Senate of Colombia, and did not go into effect.
Teller Amendment, 1898
an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, enacted on April 20, 1898, in reply to President William McKinley's War Message. It placed a condition of the United States military in Cuba. According to the clause, the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people."
Henry Cabot Lodge
chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he led the successful fight against American participation in the League of Nations, which had been proposed by President Woodrow Wilson at the close of World War I. He also served as chairman of the Senate Republican Conference from 1918 to 1924. During his term in office, he and another powerful senator, Albert J. Beveridge, pushed for the construction of a new navy.
Monroe Doctrine
a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers would no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. The United States planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and their colonies. However, if later on, these types of wars were to occur in the Americas, the United States would view such action as hostile. President James Monroe first stated the doctrine during his seventh annual State of the Union Address to Congress, a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States.
Robert Lansing
served in the position of Legal Advisor to the State Department at the outbreak of World War I where he vigorously advocated against Britain's policy of blockade and in favor of the principles of freedom of the seas and the rights of neutral nations. He then served as United States Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson between 1915 and 1920. He was nominated to the office after William Jennings Bryan's resignation. He negotiated the Lansing-Ishii Agreement with Japan in 1917 and was a member of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace at Paris in 1919.
Volstead Act, 1919
defines an alcholicbeverage as containing .5% liqur
treaty of Wanghia
the first diplomatic agreement between China and the United States in history, which was signed on 3 July 1844 in the Kun Iam Temple.
Alexander Kerensky
he second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Government until Vladimir Lenin was elected by the All-Russian Congress of Soviets following the October Revolution.
Andrew Mellon
an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932. He is the only Secretary of the Treasury to have served under three presidents (Harding, Coolidge and Hoover). wanted to lower taxes for the rich and cut government spending
one split of the republican party which refused to accpet the treaty of versailles with or without changes
Queen Liliuokalani
the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. She was originally named Lydia Liliu Loloku Walania Kamakaʻeha, Lydia Liliuokalani Paki, and also known as Lydia Kamakaʻeha Paki, with the chosen royal name of Liliʻuokalani, and later named Lydia K. Dominis.
Venezuelan Crises, 1895 and 1902
a popular revolt (denominated Caracazo) and two attempts of coup d'etat
John T. Scopes
a biology teacher in tenese who was arrested for teaching the theory of evolution. his defense attorney (Darrow) was really well known and although he gets fined 100 dollars, they make rural society llk dumb. trial basicallykills william jennings bryan.
George Creel
head of the comitte on public information
USS Maine
the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the state of Maine, was a 6682-ton second-class pre-dreadnought battleship originally designated as Armored Cruiser #1
Phillpe Bunau-Varilla
a French engineer and soldier. With the assistance of American lobbyist and lawyer William Nelson Cromwell, Bunau-Varilla greatly influenced the United States's decision concerning the construction site for the famed Panama Canal
A. Mitchell Palmer
led the palmer raids during the red scare
Fourteen Points
willsons ideas for the treatyt of versailles. only the last point was included (league of nations)
a French phrase literally meaning "let do." From the French diction first used by the 18th century physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it became used as a synonym for strict free market economics. It is generally understood to be a doctrine that maintains that private initiative and production are best allowed to roam free, opposing economic interventionism and taxation by the state beyond that which is perceived to be necessary to maintain individual liberty, peace, security, and property rights.[2]
Fuel Administration
instituted daylights savings time inorder to use less fuel
Marcus Garvey
led the "back to africa movement". not very popular and was eventually arrestedd for mail fraud and deported to jamaca
Margaret Sanger
an American birth control activist, an advocate of negative eugenics, and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). Initially met with fierce opposition to her ideas, Sanger gradually won some support, both in the public as well as the courts, for a woman's choice to decide how and when she will bear children. Margaret Sanger was instrumental in opening the way to universal access to birth control.

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