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General microbiology approach


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Name the 7 requirements for specimen collection:
1. Collect before treatment
2. Avoid normal flora
3. Obtain during acute phase
4. Get enough quantity
5. Use appropriate collecting devise.
6. Deliver to micro lab immediately.
7. Get enough info - date/time of collection.
What 3 types of swabs should be used for collection?
1. Dacron/polyester - SAFEST
2. Cotton - may have toxic FA
3. Calcium alginate - kills herpes simplex.
What are 3 types of holding media for specimens?
1. Simple sterile saline
2. Stuart's media
3. Amies media
what is Stuart's media?
Buffered semi-solid.
What is Amies media?
Media w/ charcoal, to neutralize toxin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae specimen.
what are 2 types of culture media for TRANSPORT?
Jembec plate - Gonorrhoeae
Regan Lowe - B. pertussis
What does a Jembec plate have?
-CO2 tablet to increase co2, capnophilic environment.
When are swabs NOT preferred?
-Anaerobic specimens
What are 2 types of sterile containers? What are they for?
-Cary-Blair media - holds stool cultures to find bacteria later.
-Stuart's holding media
What should be done when a specimen is rejected?
-Notify responsible party
-Keep specimen 24 hrs.
-Log name of person/action.
Name 4 types of direct stains for bacteria:
1. Gram stain
2. Acridine orange
3. Methylene blue
4. Acid fast
What is methanol fixation?
Variation of gram stain - overlay with methanol for specimens with lots of RBCs. Decreases background mess.
What is Acridine orange direct staining for?
Blood cultures.
Advntg: cells flouresce, are easier to see.
Disvntg: can't tell gram rxtn
What is a methylene blue direct stain done for?
What is Acid fast staining done for?
Mycobacterium primarily
What MUST a lab have re: QC?
Procedure in manual for:
What prepared media MUST be QC'd in a lab?
-Chocolate agar
-Campy BA
-Thayer martin, MTM, Martin lewis.
What must be proven for:
Campy BA
-CA grows fastidious
-Grows Campy, inhibits others.
-Grows neisserias, inhibits others.
What is procedure to QC media prepared in-house?
1. Sterility check
2. Able to support growth, be selective, and give differential reactions.
What else is subject to QC in a lab, other than media?
-Antimicrobial testing
How is technical performance QC'd in a lab?
1. Method evaluation
2. Personnel

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