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Micro: Antibacterial Agents


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Which Antibiotics inhibit the CYTOPLASMIC STEPS of Cell Wall Synthesis?
Fosfomycin: Uinhibits NAM synthesis from NAG

Cycloserine: attachment of the pentapeptide chain
Which Antibiotics inhibit the MEMBRANE STEPS of Cell wall synthesis?
Bacitracin: undecaprenyl-P-P carrier (prevents recycling)
Which Antibiotics inhibit the WALL STEPS of cell wall synthesis?
Vancomycin: targets penicillin binding proteins, prevents transglycosylation

B-lactams: targets penicillin binding proteins, prevents crosslinking
Which antibiotics inhibit FOLIC ACID synthesis?
Sulfanimides: target the PABA anolog

Trimethoprim: is a dihydrofolate reductase competitive inhibitor
Which antibiotics attack the CELL MEMBRANE?
Polymyxin: disrupts the cell membrane
Which antibiotics interfere with DNA REPLICATION?
Quinolones/ Floroquinolones: disrupt the DNA Gyrase-ATP complexq
Which Antibiotics interfere with TRANSCRIPTION?
Rifampicin, Rifamycin, Rifampin: attack the DNA dependent RNA polymerase
Which antibiotics inhibit PROTEIN SNYTHESIS?
Aminoglycosides: 30s intitiation

Tetracyclines: 30s, loading acceptor site (STATIC)

Lincosamides/Chloramphenicol: 50S inhibit peptide bond formation

Macrolides: 50S release peptide chain (STATIC)

Streptogramins: 50S block P site (STATIC)
Differentiate btwn the MIC and the MBC.
Minimal INHIBITORY concentration: the lowest conc at which bacterial growth is inhibited; characteristice of both bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal ABs

Minimal BACTERIOCIDAL concentration: lowest conc at which bacteria are killed
what are methods of inactivation of Aminoglycosides?
Describe the resistance mechanism bacteria use for the following antibiotics...?

1. Beta-lactams

2. Bacitracin

3. Vancomycin

4. Fosfomycin
1.variable outer membrane penetration, efflux B-lactamases, PBP mutants; exented Spectrum B-lacatmases

2. ?

3. D-Ala-D-Ala to D-Ala-D-lac OR D-Ala-D-Ser, efflux

4. reduced transport, fosfomycinases
Describe the resistance mechanism bacteria use for the following antibiotics...?

1. Macrolides/ Streptogramins

2. lincosamides

3. Tetracylines

4. Aminoglycosides
1. variable outer membrane penetraion, methylation of 23S rRNA subunit, efflux pumps, 50S subunit mutations

2. efflux pumps, methylation 23S rRNA subunit

3. efflux pumps

4. oxidative transport required, efflux pumps; N-acetylation, O-phosphorylation, O-adenylation
Describe the resistance mechanism bacteria use for the following antibiotics...?

1. Fluoro/Quinolones

2. Rifampicin

3. Sulfonamides

4. Trimethoprim
1. efflux pump, permeability mutations

2. aa changes in RNA polymerase

3. alternate dihydropterate synthetase, efflux

4. dihydrofolate reductase mutants, efflux

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