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Core Concepts in Pharmacology Ch 06


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central nervous system (CNS)
part of the nervous system made up of brain & spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
part of nervous system made up of all nervous tissue outside of CNS
somatic nervous system
consists of nerves providing voluntary control over skeletal muscle
autonomic nervous system
provides involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

also regulates: heart - digestive tract - respiratory tract - reproductive tract - arteries - salivary glands - portions of eye

has two parts: 1) sympathetic nervous sys. and 2) parasympathetic nervous sys.
sympathetic nervous system
activated under conditions of stress

produces fight-or-flight response

part of autonomic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
activated under non-stressful condidtions

produces rest-and-relaxation response

part of autonomic nervous system
basic functional cell of nervous system
structure at end of nerve receiving nervous impulse
synaptic cleft
gap to be bridged prior to nerve impulse reaching next nerve at synapse
presynaptic nerve
generates original nerve impulse

located prior to synaptic cleft
postsynaptic nerve
on receiving side of synaptic cleft

awaits nerve impulse
chemicals bridging the physical space of the synaptic left

nervous impulse reaches end of presynaptic nerve -> neurotransmitter released into synaptic cleft -> travels across to reach receptors on postsynaptic nerve -> regenerates impulse

many drugs are identical or have same general structure as neurotransmitters - they either block or enhance neurotransmitter activity
norepinephrine (NE)
one of two primary neurotransmitters of autonomic nervous system

released at junction of postsynaptic nerve & recipient organ/gland
acetylcholine (Ach)
one of two primary neurotransmitters of autonomic nervous system

physiology complicated due to release in varied locations
another term sometimes used for sympathetic nerves

term comes from 'adrenaline' - chemical closely r/t NE
refers to nerves releasing Ach
nicotinic receptors
Ach receptors in ganglia & skeletal muscles
muscarinic receptors
Ach receptors at end of postsynaptic nerves in parasympathetic nervous system
alpha and beta receptors
two NE subtypes

subdivided into beta1, beta2, alpha1, alpha2

drugs may selectively act on only one type of NE receptor or on others as well
produce many of same symptoms of Ach

due to alpha & beta receptors, actions are often more specific & therefore therapeutic
drugs that stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system

induce the rest-and-relaxation response

only handful of these drugs have therapeutic application due to potential for advers affects on HR & RR
inhibit sympathetic nervous system

produce many of same rest-and-relaxtion symptoms as parasympathomimetics, but are more widely used
AKA cholinergic-blockers

produce actions opposite to parasympathomimetics
myasthenia gravis
destruction of nicotinic receptors on skeletal muscles

*pyridostigmine (Mestinon) or *nestigmine (Prosigmin) stimulate skeletal muscle contraction & help reverse symptoms
pupil dilation
AKA alpha-adrenergic-blockers

primarly used for effects on vascular smooth muscle

main use is in treatment of htn
cardioselective ones block only beta1-receptors & slow HR & BP

non-selective ones block both beta1& beta2-receptors & treat htn, angina & cardiac rhythm abnormalities (usually w/+ side effects)
Which of the following is a (are) functions(s) of the nervous system?
a. recognize changes in the internal and external environments
b. process and integrate the environmental changes that are perceived
c. react to the environmental change
d. all of the above are functions of the nervous system
An adrenergic-blocker is most directly related to:
a. stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
b. inhibition of the parasympathetic nervous system
c. stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system
d. inhibition of the sympathe
d. inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system
Bethanechol (Urecholine) exerts its effects by:
a. stimulating cholinergic-receptors
b. blocking cholinergic-receptors
c. blocking beta-receptors
d. stimulating alpha-receptors
a. stimulating cholinergic-receptors
The primary use of a new drug developed as a selective beta1-antagonist would be to:
a. raise blood pressure
b. lower blood pressure
c. increase heart rate
d. decrease heart rate
b. lower blood pressure
Drugs that block the action of norepinephrine at alpha and beta-receptors are called:
a. parasympathomimetics
b. parasympatholytics
c. sympathomimetics
d. sympatholytics
d. sympatholytics
Nicotinic receptors are primarily found at the:
a. sweat glands
b. organs stimulated by the parasympathetic nervous system
c. autonomic ganglia
d. organs stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system
c. autonomic ganglia
A new drug is developed which is found to stimulate the release of norepinephrine selectively at alpha1-receptors. The effects of this drug would be most pronounced upon which organ or tissue?
a. arteriolar smooth muscle
b. heart
c. GI tra
a. arteriolar smooth muscle
Propanolol (Inderal) exerts its effects by:
a. stimulating cholinergic-receptors
b. blocking cholinergic-receptors
c. blocking beta-receptors
d. stimulating alpha-receptors
c. blocking beta-receptors
Somatic nerves make up a branch of the nervous system described as:
a. motor voluntary
b. motor involuntary
c. sensory
d. integratory
a. motor voluntary
The type of receptor found at the autonomic ganglia is:
a. nicotinic
b. muscarinic
c. alpha
d. beta
a. nicotinic

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