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Core Concepts in Pharmacology Ch 05


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substance abuse
use of a drug, be self-administration, that does not conform to medical or social norms w/i client's given culture or society
an overwhelming feeling that drives someone to repeat drug-taking behavior, despite serious health & social consequences

usually considered a neurobiological problem closely related to pt's psychological state & social setting
physical dependence
altered physical condition caused by nervous system adapting to repeated drug use

over time, body's cells are tricked into believing they are 'normal' in presence of drug

withdrawal produces signs of physical discomfort
psychological dependence
user has an intense desire to continue drug use despite negative economic, physical, or social consequences

NO signs of physical discomfort w/withdrawal
classic withdrawal
occurs when pt becomes physically addicted to substance & it is discontinued

severity depends on drug, length of use, & pt
conditioned withdrawal
occurs when pt associates conditions & surroundings (including company of other users) w/taking of drug

users tend to revert back to drug-seeking behavior when returning to company of other substance abusers
individual adapts to drug over period of time

pt requires higher & higher doeses to produce same effect as initially experienced
failure of liver to perform its vital functions resulting in abnormalities in blood clotting & nutritional deficiencies

debilitating & often fatal

causes pt to become very sensitive to effects of drugs
tetrahydroccanbinol (THC)
active ingrediant in marijuana

effects include: slows motor activity - decreases coordination - disconnected thought - paranoia - euphoria - increased thirst & craving for food - red/bloodshot eyes

accumulates in reproductive tissues (particularly gonads)
hallucinogens w/ability to produce altered,dream-like state of consciousness

tolerance may occur, but little or not dependence is observed
reticular formation
part of the brain in which norepinephrine affects awareness & wakefulness
include natural substances from unripe seeds of poppy plant

prescribed for severe pain, persistent cough, & diarrhea

AKA narcotics

physiological s/s include constricted pupils , increase in pain threshold, & respiratory depression
Immunity is a condition in which progressively higher doses of the drug are required in order to produce the same effect.


TOLERANCE is a condition whereby an individual adapts to a drug over a period of time, such that higher and higher doses of the drug are required in order to produce the same initial effect. p55
Most abused CNS depressants are either controlled or illegal.


Although the majority of the drugs in this group are legal, many are controlled due to their abuse potential. p61
Which of the following statements about addiction is NOT CORRECT?
a. Addiction is most likely a neurobiological problem linked closely to the client's psychological state and social setting.
b. In some cases, addiction may begin with the client
c. The therapeutic use of narcotics and sedatives creates large numbers of addicted clients.
A drug once used for bronchodilation that has been discontinued because of psychotic episodes in some clients is:
a. cocaine
b. phencyclidine
c. LSD
d. amphetamine
d. amphetamine
Despite their potential to cause dependence, opioids are often used for pain relief because they:
a. help the client sleep
b. can be taken once a day
c. are more efficacious than other analgesics
d. produce less withdrawal than other
c. are more efficacious than other analgesics
When a person has an overwhelming desire to take a drug and cannot stop, this is directly referred to as:
a. addiction
b. dependence
c. tolerance
d. withdrawal
b. dependence
The sleep disorder drug for which clients often fake or change prescriptions is:
a. amphetamines
b. barbiturates
c. benzodiazepines
d. opioids
b. barbiturates
Which of the following drugs was once used as a local anesthetic?
a. amphetamine
b. ketamine
c. phencyclidine
d. cocaine
d. cocaine
Conditioned withdrawal is when:
a. the drug abuser becomes used to withdrawal symptoms
b. prescription drugs are used to reduce the severity of withdrawal symptoms
c. users revert back to drug-seeking behavior when they return to the compa
c. users revert back to drug-seeking behavior when they return to the company of other drug abusers
When an individual adapts to a drug over a short time and requires higher and higher doses in order to produce the same effect, this is called:
a. conditioning
b. withdrawal
c. immunity
d. tolerance
d. tolerance
Which of the following drugs produces the fastest onset of action?
a. ethyl alcohol
b. marijuana
c. caffeine
d. LSD
b. marijuana
a. is the active ingrediant in marijuana
b. decreases coordination and thought processes
c. affects mainly the nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems
d. applied by patch helps 75% of smoking clients to remain tobacco
c. affects mainly the nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems
The prototype for the class of hallucinogens is:
a. MDA
b. DOM
c. psilocybin
d. LSD
d. LSD
Which of the following is found in the peyote cactus?
b. DOM
c. Mescaline
d. MDA
c. Mescaline

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