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Blood and Blood Cells


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function of blood
to carry nutrients to cells and waste products to excretory organs
-biconcave: dog sheep
-shallow: horse cat
-flat: goat pig

-shape maintained by spectrin
-central pale area and peripheral part has more Hb
-all organelles are discarded

-anaerobic glycolysis
Anisocytosis and poikilocytosis
ani: variation in size is common in most animal species

poik: variation in shape is common in goat and deer
Abnormalities in erythrocytes
Reticulocytes: immature RBC (indicator of anemia), contain ribosomes/mitochondria

Howell-Jolly: deeply basophilic inclusions, reminants of nucleus

Heinz bodies: pale area close to periphery due to hemoglobin oxidation
Neutrophils (Heterophils)
-segmented nucleus
-pale granules
-immature ones are called band cells

-first line of defense, phagocytosis and destruction
-azurophilic/specific granules

-30-40% in ruminants, 50% in horse, 60-70% in dog and cat
-segmented nucleus (less than neutrophil)
-pink granules
-cats rod-shaped

-parasitic infection, alergic, anaphylatic reactions, inactivates histamine
-mediate inflammatory reaction
-have histamine, heparin granules
-largest blood cell
-grayish/foamy vaculated cytoplasm
-precursor to macrophage
-small and large
-scant cytoplasm

-20-40% dog, cat and horse
-50-60% pig
-60-70% ruminants
-discoid, spherical or elongate cytoplasmic fragments
-remain individual
-main cell in marrow and breaks off fragments of itself
-thrombocytes: nucleated cells in birds, fish, reptiles
-proteins are absorbed on thin external coat

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