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Axial Skeleton 2


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axial skeleton
80 bones
cranial-8, facial-14, bones associated with skull-7
vertebrae-24, sacrum, coccyx
ribs-24, sternum
Protects brain and guards entrances to digestive and respiratory system.
cranium-8 bones
face-14 bones
auditory ossicles-6
hyoid bone-1
cranim (braincase)
Enclose the cranial cavity.

occipital bone, frontal bone,
sphenoid, ethmoid, paired parietal and temporal bones
facial bones
-paired maxillary, lacrimal, nasal, and zygomatic bones,
-paired palatine bones and inferior nasal conchae
Air filled chamber within a bone. Make a bone lighter. Mucous membrane produces mucus that moistens and cleans the air.
Immovable joints of skull. Bones are tied firmly together with dense fibroius connective tissue.
lambdoid suture
Separates the occipital bone from the two parietal bones.
maxillary bones
FUNCTION-support the upper teeth, form the inferior orbital rim, the lateral margins of external nares, upper jaw, and most of hard palate
ARTICULATIONS-frontal, ethmoid, one another, all facial bones except mandible
LANDMARKS-orbital rim, anterior nasal spine, alveolar process, palatine processes, hard palate, maxillary sinuses, nasolacrimal canal
FORAMINA-infraorbital foramen, inferior orbital fissure
coronal suture
Attaches the frontal bone to the parietal bones.
sagittal suture
Extends from the lambdoid suture to the coronal suture, between the parietal bones.
palatine bones
FUNCTION-forma posterior portion of hard palate and contribute to floor of orbit
ARTICULATIONS-one another, maxillary, sphenoid, ethmoid, inferior nasal conchae, vomer
LANDMARKS-horizontal plate, perpendicular plate, orbital process
FORAMINA-greater and lesser palatine foramen
squamous sutures
On each side of the skull forms the boundary between the temporal bone and the parietal bone.
occipital bone
FUNCTION-forms posterior and inferior surfaces of the cranium
ARTICULATIONS-parietal bones, temporal bones, sphenoid, first cervical vertebra
LANDMARKS-external occipital protuberance, external occipital crest, occipital condyles, inferior and superior nuchal lines, internal occipital crest, chondyloid fossa, posterior cranial fossa
FORAMINA-foramen magnum, jugular foramen, hypoglossal canals
nasal bones
FUNCTION-support superior portion of bridge of nose, connected to cartiliages that support distal portions of nose
ARTICULATIONS-one another, ethmoid, frontal , maxillary
parietal bones
FUNCTION-form port of superior and lateral surfaces of cranium
ARTICULATIONS-one another, occipital, temporal, frontal, sphenoid
LANDMARKS-superior and inferior temporal lines
FUNCTION-forms inferior portion of bony nasal septum
ARTICULATIONS-sphenoid, ethmoid, palatine, maxillary,
frontal bone
FUNCTION-forms anterior portion of cranium and roof of orbits
ARTICULATIONS-parietal, sphenoid, ethmoid, nasal, lacrimal, maxillary, zygomatic
LANDMARKS-frontal squama, superior temporal line, supraorbital margin, lacrimal fossa, frontal sinuses
FORAMINA-supraorbital foramen, supraorbital notch
temporal bones
FUNCTION-(1)form part of the lateral walls of the cranium and the zygomatic arches(2)only articulation with mandible(3)surround and protect the sense organs of inner ear(4)attachment sites for muscles that close jaws and move head
LANDMARKS-squamous part, zygomatic process, zygomatic arch, mandibular fossa, mastoid process, styloid process, petrous part, auditory ossicles
FORAMINA-carotid canal, foramen lacerum, external acoustic canal, stylomastoid foramen, internal acoustic canal
sphenoid bone
FUNCTION-forms part of the floor of cranium, unites cranial and facial bones, acts as a cross brace that strengthens sides of skull
ARTICULATIONS-ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal, palatine, zygomatic, maxillary, vomer
LANDMARKS- body, sella turcica, anterior and posterior clinoid processes, hypophyseal fossa, sphenoidal sinuses, lesser wings, greater wings, sphenoidal spine, pterygoid processes
FORAMINA-optic canals, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum
inferior nasal conchae
FUNCTION-create turbulence in air passing through nasal cavity, increase epithelial surface area
ARTICULATIONS-ethmoid, maxillary, palatine, lacrimal

Lateral Skull
ethmoid bone
FUNCTION-forms anteromedial floor of cranium, roof of nasal cavity, and part of nasal septum and medial orbital wall
ARTICULATIONS-frontal, sphenoid, nasal, lacrimal, palatine, maxillary, inferior nasal conchae, vomer
LANDMARKS-(1)cribriform plate-crista galli(2)paired lateral masses-ethmoidal labyrinth, ethmoidal air cells, superior nasal conchae, middle nasal conchae(3)perpendicular plate
FORAMINA-olfactory foramina
zygomatic bones
FUNCTION-contribute to rim and lateral wall of the orbit, form part of zygomatic arch
ARTICULATIONS-sphenoid, frontal, temporal, maxillary
LANDMARKS-temporal process
FORAMINA-zygomaticofacial formamen
lacrimal bones
FUNCTION-form part of the medial wall of orbit
ARTICULATIONS-frontal, maxillary, ethmoid
LANDMARKS-lacrimal sulcus
FUNCTION-forms lower jaw
ARTICULATIONS-mandibular fossae of the temporal bones
LANDMARKS-body, alveolar process, mental protuberance, submandibular salivary gland, mylohyoid line, ramus, angle, condylar process, coronoid process, mandibular notch
FORAMINA-mental foramina, mandibular foramen
hyoid bone
FUNCTION-Supports the larynx, attachment site for muscles of larynx, pharynx, and tongue
ARTICULATIONS-stylohyoid ligaments connect lesser horns to styloid processes
LANDMARKS-body,greater horns,lesser horns

anterior skull

inferior skull

orbit bones

superior skull
(horizontal section)

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