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Pharmacy 2


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What term is used for the science that deals with the origin, nature, chemistry, effects, and uses of drugs and their interaction with the systems of living animals
What is the study of the uses of drugs in teh treatment of disease?
Pharmacokinetics is teh branch of pharmacology that deals with the scientific study of the _________,_________,_________,and _________ of drugs over time.
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
What is the transformation of the drug by physiological processes of the body into other forms, ussually less potent or toxic than the original form that can be eliminated?
What does the site of action include?
Local use and Systemic use
What does each term refer to?
Local- site specific application
Systemic-application of a drug by absorption
What are the locations on the surface or within the cell that contain specific protein molecules that bind to other specific molecules, producing some effect in teh cell called?
Receptor Sites
What is the desired action of a drug or the action for which the drug is prescribed called?
Therapeutic Effect
What is a drug that binds to a particular receptor site and triggers teh cells response in a similar way to the bodys own chemical messenger?
What is a drug that binds to a particular receptor site and blocks the action of teh endogenouschemical messenger without triggering the cells response called?
What is dosage that causes interference with normal physiological functions, synonymous with poisonous effect called?
Toxic effects
Responses other than the primary therapeutic effect for a drug that can be beneficial or harmful are called what?
Side effects
A harmful, undesirable side effect
Adverse effects
What is the (OOA) Onset of Action?
The time period required after administration of a drug to achieve the desired response, or therapeutic concentration level.
Unusual or unexpected responses to a drug, unrelated to the dose given
A local or general immune response in which the immune system overreacts to an otherwise harmless substance, initial response evokes memory storage
The longest name of a drug, giving the chemical makeup
Chemical name
A shortened version of the chemical name
Generic name
The name under which the manufacturer has patented the drug, copyrighted. This name begins with a capital letter
Trade or Brand name
The use of a drug for purposes other than those prescribed
Drug Abuse
What are some symptoms of withdrawal syndrome?
restlessness and restless sleep, chill and hot flashes,piloerection on the skin, abdominal and lower extremity cramps, vomiting and diarrhea, muscular twitching, elevated blood pressure, pulse rate and temp, craving for the drug
Means vinegar, acid or sharp
Means glue
colloidal oatmeal
Means shape, dream
Means fever, fire
pyr, pyr/o
Means pain
-algia, -algesia
Means to break apart
sympatholytic, urinalysis
What is the chemical name of a drug dictated by?
The chemical components in the drug and the generic name is given when a compound is classified into a particular drug class.
How can drugs be identified by class?
When looking at the generic name
Drug Class: benzodiazepine Ex:Diazepam
Drug class: penicillin
Ex: amoxicillin
Drug class: narcotic analgesic
Ex:hydrocodone, codeine
Drug class: beta blocker
Ex: atenelol propranolol
Drug class: steroid anti-inflammatory
Drug class: ACE inhibitor
Ex: lisinopril monopril
Drug class: H2 Blocker
Ex:ranitidine, cimetidine
Drug class: tricyclic antidepressant
Ex:nortriptyline, amitriptyline
Drug class: antiviral
Ex: zivovudine
Means drops
Means acetaminophen
Means aspirin
Derived from ante cibum means before meals
Means at pleasure, freely
ad lib
Means twice a day
Means as needed
Means four times a day
derived from quater in die
Means three times a day derived from ter in die
Right ear
left ear
each ear or both ears
nothing by mouth
right eye
left eye
each eye or both eyes
Means by mouth
derived from per os
Means rectally
Means take or take thou
What biological factors affect drug action?
Age, gender, disease state, psychological factors, genetic factors, and natural chemicals
Age related changes in organ funcion and body composition can causes altered drug responses in regards to what?
Absorption, distribution, elimination, metabolism
What are three natural chemicals yoru body produces that affect metabolism of drugs?
histamine, prostaglandin, and bradykinin
What is release in your body as a result of the body's immune response to foreign substances?
Mediatores of several physiologic processes and produce diverse, complex pharmacologic actions in several body systems and metabolic pathways
(PG's) prostaglandins
What is a property of prostaglandins?
Fever and uterine contraction and relaxation
What causes intense uterine contraction?
What causes uterine relaxation?
A polypeptide that is formed from plasma alpha globulin?
What are some effects of bradykinin?
Arterial dilation and lowered blood pressure, it stimulates autonomic ganglion cells in contact with sensory nerve ending, which causes pain
What happens if the gastro intestinal tract is free of food and irritating drugs?
Drugs are absorbed more rapidly
What three phases is the mechanism of action divided into?
Pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamics
In the pharmaceutical phase the process by which a drug goes into solution and becomes available for absorption is called what?
In the pharmocokinetics phase what determines the rate of absorption?
The route of administration, dose of the drug, and dosage form.
The transfer of a drug substance from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration until equilibrium is reached
Passive transport
No enery is required for theis process and the majority of drugs are transported by this system
Passive transport
Necessary for the transport of amino acids, glucose, and some drugs
Active or carrier transport
Involves movement of drug molecules against the concentration gradient from lower concentration to higher concentration, or in the case of ions, against teh electrochemical potential gradient
Active or carrier transport
Drugs that are lipid-soluble can also pass more easily through the ________,________, the placental barrier, and the alimentary tract
blood brain barrier
Which drugs are absorbed more quickly via the parenteral route?
Why may the drug be prepared in a vehicle that restists digestive action of the stomach contents?
to prevent nausea and vomition induced by the drugs effect in the stomach.
Storage reservoirs allow a drug to accumulate by binding to specific tissues in the body, which sustains teh pharmacologic effect of a drug at its point of action
Plasma protein binding
Where are lipid soluble drugs stored?
adipose tissue
Where is the primary site of drug metabolism?
A process whereby drugs and pharmacologically active or inactive metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidney
Weak acids are excreted more ________in alkaline urine and more ________in acidic urine whereas as weak bases are excreted more________readily in acidic urine and more______in alkaline urine.
readily, slowly, readily, slowly
What is generally the safest route for drug administration?
Oral route
The effects of two drugs given together is equal to the sum of each of teh individual drugs. 1+1=2
Additive effects (summation)
A drug interaction in which the combined effect of two drugs is greater thatn the sum of each individual dose. 1+1=3
The administration o ftwo drugs is less than the sum of either drug given individually. 1+1=1.5 Both drugs compete for the same receptor site
An effect that occurs when one drug increases or prolongs the effect of another drug, but by itself has little or no effect
What is the only form alowed for prescribing controlled substances?
What polyprescription can only be used for non controlled prescription or over the counter meds?
NAVMED 6710/6
What is the superscription?
The rX symbol
What is the inscription?
Lists name and quantities of the ingrediants to be used
What is the subscription?
Gives directions to the compounder
What is the Signatura?
Gives directions to the patient
How many times do you need to check the label when dispensing medications?
Where and when was the metric system developed?
France, 1790
When did the metric system become a legal standard measurment in the US?
What is the Apothecary system based on?
The dry measure of the grain and (gr) and the unit of volume of the minim(m)
What does 1 grain (gr) equal in milligrams?
2.2 pounds equals how many ounces and grains?
26.4 ounces and 12,672 grains =1 kilogram
What is the Avoirdupois system based on?
The dry measure unit grain which is equibalent to the grain in the apothecary system.
Where are household measures derived from?
apothecary system
Youngs Rule is used to calculate pediatric dosages based on teh age of the child and is expressed as:
age in years
age in years +12 X adult dose = childs dose
Clarks rule is used to calculate dosage based on weight with what formula?
weight in lbs X adult=childs
150 dose

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