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Back Muscles


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What is the action of the trapezius?
adduct, elevates, depresses, and rotates scapula
What is the action of the levator scapulae?
elevates scapula
What is the action of the rhomboid minor?
adducts scapula
What is the action of the latissimus dorsi?
adducts, extends & rotates arm medially
What is the action of the serratus posterior superior?
elevates ribs
What is the action of the serratus posterior inferior?
depresses ribs
What 2 muscles are responsible for adducting the scapula?
rhomboid major & minor
What are 6 causes of back pain?
spinal cord, spinal nerves, vertebral bodies, intervertebral joints, intervertebral ligaments, and muscles
What are some differential diagnosis for back pain? (9)
intervertebral disc rupture and herniation
nerve inflammation or compression
degenerative changes in vertebral facet joints
metabolic bone disease
abdominal aneurysm
metastatic caner
myofascial disorders
back stain & sprain
What are the superficial (extrinsic) back muscles innervated by?
ventral rami or spinal nerves (not dorsal)
What are the intermediate layers of back muscles called?
erector spinae
What are the erector spinae contained within?
thoracolumbar fascia
What are the intermediate (extrinsic) and deep back muscles (intrinsic) innervated by?
dorsal rami of spinal nerves
What are the three muscles that make up the erector spinae from medial to lateral?
Where do iliocostalis muscles insesrt?
onto RIBS and cervical transverse processes
Where do longissimus muscles insert?
onto ribs TRANSVERSE PROCESSES of thoracic and cerfvical vertebrae and mastoid process of temporal bone
Where do spinalis muscles insert?
onto SPINOUS PROCESS of vertebrae
Where do erector spinae muscles originate from?
posterior lateral surface of the sacrum and iliac crest and supraspinous ligament over the sacrum and lower lumbar region
What are the actions of the erector spinae?
bilaterally-extend head, cervial region or thorax
unilaterally-allow for sideward flexion or lateral bending, aids in twisting
What are the deep layer of back muscles collectively called?
Name the order of the transverospinalis (deep back muscles) from most superficial to deepest?
Where do the semispinalis muscles originate and insert?
originate from transverse processes of C4-T12
insert into spinous processes 4-6 segments superiorly
Where do multifidus originate and insert?
originate from sacrum and ilium inferiorly or transverse processes more cranially
insert into spinous processes 2-4 segments superiorly
Where do rotatores originate and insert?
originate from transverse process
insert into spinous processes 1-2 segments superiorly
Which of the transverospinalis are the smallest?
Differentiate between back strain and sprain?
strain-muscular problem, microscopic tears
sprain-damage to back ligaments which connect vertebrae
What is the most common cause of congenital spinal cord defect?
failure of the neural tube to close
What causes neural tube defects?
folic acid insufficiency

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