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Cell Flash Cards

Terms

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What is a cell wall?
⬢ Is a framework for the cell.
⬢ Located outside cell membrane
⬢ Primary-cellulose
⬢ Secondary is made up of cellulose and lignin (woody stems)
⬢ Pectin (glue) holds all cells together
What is the chloroplast?
⬢ Tap light for photosynthesis
What is the cell membrane?
⬢ Separates cell from surrounding, regulates what enters and leaves cell, protects and supports cell
Structure
⬢ Lipid bylayer
⬢ Surface protein
⬢ Channel proteins
⬢ Protein pumps
⬢ Carbohydrates for ID (indentify) molecules (allow to pass through or not)
What are the centrioles?
⬢ 2 bundles of microtubules
⬢ Right angles to each other
⬢ Are near the nucleus
⬢ Used in cell division
What is the cytoplasm?
Jelly-like material, between nucleus and cell membrane, contains organelles
To hold organelles together, gives cell shape
What is the Cytoskeleton?
• Nucri tybykes’
o Support and shape
o Move organelles
o Form centriole and spindle
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum, smooth?
⬢ Transports materials
⬢ Smooth ER stores enzymes and chemicals
What it the Rough ER?
⬢ Transports materials
⬢ Rough ER involved in protein synthesis
What is the Golgi?
⬢ Made up of smooth ER
⬢ Protein modifier
⬢ Flattened membranes
⬢ Collect, modify, package, distribute molecules
⬢ Makes lysosomes
What is the lysosome?
up crew
⬢ Contains chemicals and enzymes for digestion
⬢ Made by Golgi body
What is the mitochondria?
⬢ Provides power for cell,
⬢ 2 layer membrane
⬢ cellular respiration-produces energy
What is the nucleolus? Where is it located?
⬢ Produces RNA and protein and ribosomes
In the nucleus
What is the nucleus?
⬢ Hereditary information
⬢ Eukaryotes have a nucleus
o Plant and animal cells
⬢ Prokaryotes do not
o Bacteria
What is a ribosome?
• “protein factory”
• Produces RNA and protein
• Floats in the membrane or free
• Produced in Nucleolus
What is a vacuole?
⬢ Storage tank
⬢ Fluid filled sac
⬢ Store water (pinocytosis), food, minerals, salts
⬢ Contractile vacuoles maintain water balance in paramecia
o When it is filled with water, it becomes pressurized (Turgor pressure), thus holding up the plant stem.
⬢ Formed on the cell membrane
What is chromatin?
⬢ Consists of DNA and protein
⬢ Indistinct mass
⬢ Condenses into chromosomes during cell division
What is the nucleoplasm?
⬢ Jelly-like material inside nuclear membrane
⬢ Has DNARNA through pores to tell cell
⬢ Mostly water
What is the nuclear membrane?
⬢ Envelope the nucleus
⬢ Double layer
⬢ Has pores
What are organelles?
⬢ Basic unit of Life function
Who was Robert Hooke and what did he do?
⬢ Came up with the word cellcork cell
Who was van Leewenhoik? What did he do?
⬢ One of the first people to use a microscope to study nature
Who was virchow? What did he do?
He came up with the cell theory
o All living things are composed of cells
o Calls are the basic units of structures and function in living things
o New cells are produced from existing cells
Wha was Scleiden? What did he do?
All plants are made of cells
Who was Schwann and what did he do?
⬢ Concluded that all animals were made of cells
What is a prokaryote cell?
An animal or plant cell that has multiple organelles
What is a eukaryote cell?
A bacteria or single-celled organism.
What is movement in the cell carried out by?
By the microfilaments and microtubules.
What are microtubules and microfilaments?
Microtubules-Hollow protein tubes
Support and shape
Move organelles
Form centriole & spindle
Form cilia & flagella
Microfilaments-Cell movement & support
Cytoplasmic streaming
In muscle cells, contract
What are plastids?
Leucoplasts store starch
Chromoplasts store pigment
Chloroplasts trap light for photosynthesis

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