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1.Chapter 6 Cytology, Microscopy, and Biochemistry


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are the fundamental unit of structure and function of living organisms. They sense and respond to enviromental variations.
Specialized cells...
work together to keep one another alive in multicelled organisms.
Biologist use ________ and _______ ________ __ _____ ______ to study cells.
*microscopes *isolating organells by cell fractionation
Invented in 1590
Magnification in microscopy is the ratio of an object's image to its real size.
Resolution is a measure of clarity of the image.
2 types of microscopes
*Light microscopes
*Electron microscopes
Light Microscopes (LMs)
* Thin prep for light to pass through
* Maximum 1000 X magnification fig 6.3 pg.96
Electron Microscope (EMs)
* possible to view cell structure or oganelles.
2 basic types to Electron microsopes are
SEM Scanning electron microscope
TEM Transmission electron microscopes
SEM Scanning electron microscopes ...
are detailed in studing the surface of the specimen. fig 6.4; page 96. It has an electron beam that scans a gold film, which excite the electrons of gold and provide electronic signal.
TEM transmission electron microscope
studies to internal ultrastructure fo cells. e- beams passes thru a very thin section of the specimen. The specimen has been stained w/ atom of heavy metals which scatter and provides contrast. fig 6.4; pg 96.
Isolating Organelles by Cell Fractionation
the goal is to take the cell apart and separate (by size and weight) the major organelles from one another.
Another goal is to study the structure and function of cell.

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