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Chemistry AS Level - 10.1.3 - Electrons and Energy Levels


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Main level 1, sublevels:
Main level 2, sublevels:
Main level 3, sublevels:
Main level 4, sublevels:
How many electrons can fit into each level:
2n^2 (2,8,18,32) but 4s gets two electrons when 3p has 8, before 3d starts to fill.
How many electrons can fit into each sub-level?
How are electron configuration diagrams drawn?
1s at bottom, moves up levels. 3d above 4s. Electrons ^down^down arrows. Go into sublevels unpaired before pairing takes place.
Electron configuration e.g.:
1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^1.. Save time by [Ar] or [Ne] - only after.
Copper is exception to energy level rule:
[Ar] 4s^1 3d^10
Chromium is exception to energy level rule:
[Ar] 4s^1 3d^5
Blocks of elements
electron within highest energy is in an s/d/f/p sub-level. Periodic table shaded.
fills up before 3d, loses electrons before 3d.
Ion electron configuration:
different - lost or gained electrons
can't know exact location of electron - found from electron density measurement that there are regions where it is highly probably to find an electron of certain energe. High probably to find an electron = orbital.
sub-levels and orbitals
Each of the s p and d sub-levels corresponds to a different shaped orbital. Each orbital can hold 2 electrons which spin in different difections.
Shape of s orbitals
s - spheres getting larger per shell
Shape of p orbitals
p>x orbital on x axis - diagonal when z at top
p>y horizontal when z at top.
p>z straight up. Hourglass.

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