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micro 205 exam 2


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Clostridium botulinum forms what?
Where does Clostridium botulinum live?
The soil
How does Clostridium botulinum spread?
If the spores are ingested, they germinate and produce botulinum toxin
What does Clostridium botulinum cause?
Is Clostridium botulinum an aerobe or anaerobe, and what kind?
It is a strict anaerobe
Is Clostridium botulinum gram positive or gram negative?
It is gram positive
What form does it take?
Rod form
Does the growtn of microbes in cell size?
What is the control of growth of microbes important for?
It is important for infection control and growth of industrial and biotech organisms.
What are the three factors that regulate microbial growth?
Nutrients, environmental conditions, and generation time
What are three organic growth factors?
Source of energy, vitamins (coenzymes), and osme amino acids
If something uses CO2 for its carbon source, what is it?
An autotroph
If something uses organic materials for its carbon source, what is it?
A heterotroph
If something uses sunlight for its energy source, what is it?
A phototroph
If something uses organic means for its energy sources, what is it?
A chemotroph
What is a saprobe?
An organism that lives on organic matter of dead organisms
What is a parasite?
An organism that lives on organic matter of living hosts
What are parasites also known as?
What is group translocation?
Lower to higher concentrations with chemical change
What is bulk transport?
endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis
What are psychrophiles
Cold loving
What are mesophiles
Moderate loving
What are thermophiles
Heat loving
Is listeria monocytogenes gram positive or gram negative?
Gram positive
Is listeria monocytogenes common or uncommon?
Common in the environment
Where does listeria monocytogenes live?
It lives in monoocytes
How does it move?
It moves intracellularly from cell to cell
What type of phile is it?
It is a psychrophile
What does it cause?
What are the symptoms of listeriosos?
Fever, aches, GI or CNS symptoms
What can this do to pregnant woman?
Cause them to suffer a miscariage
What is aerotolerant?
Does not use O2 but can grow when in the presence of it.
What are microaerophiles?
They require O2 but grow only in concentrations lower than air.
What is commensalism?
A commensal benefits and the host is not harmed.
What are two direct methods to measure growth?
Plate counts and direct microscopic count
What are three indirect methods for measuring growth?
Turbidity, metabolic activity, and dry weight
What is the turnover number?
The maximum number of substrate molecules an enzyme molecule can convert to product each second.
Oxidation reduction reactions
Transfer of functional groups, such as phosphates or amino acids
Cleaves bonds on molecules with the addition of water (hydrolysis)
Removal or addition of groups of atoms without hydrolysis
Rearrangement of atoms within a molecule
Joining two molecules
Where do exoenzymes work?
They work outside the cell
Where do enzymes work?
They work inside the cell, usually as metabolic enzymes.
What do ribozymes act as?
They act as catalysts on specific strands of RNA by removing sections and splicing them together.

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