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upper extremity muscles


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name the muscles attaching the axial skeleton to the shoulder girdle
trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboids (minor and major), serratus anterior, and pectoralis minor
3 parts:
o: ligamentum nuchae (cervical vertebrae) C7-T12 spinous processes
i: spine of scapula, acromion process, lateral 1/3 of clavicle
a: elevation and retraction
N: cranial n. 11 a.k.a. spinal accessory nerve
levator scapulae
O:transverse processes of C1-C4
I:medial border of scapula
A: elevation of scapula
N: dorsal scapula n.
rhomboids (minor and major)
OMinor:C7-T1spinous processes
OMajor:T2-T5spinous processes
I: medial border of scapula
A: retration
N: dorsal scapula nerve
serratus anterior
O:(deep)lateral parts of ribs 1-8
I:medial border of scapula
A: protraction
N: long thoracic nerve
pectoralis minor
O:upper ribs 3-5
I:coracoid process of scapula
N:medial pectoral nerve
What muscle group all insert on the humerus?
pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, teres major
pectoralis major
o:medial 1/2 of clavicle and whole part of sternum
I:greater tubercle
A:adduction,flexion, and internal rotation at glenohumeral joint
N:medial and lateral pectoral n.
latissimus dorsi
O:axial skeleton-spinous processes T6-T12
I: floor of bicipital groove on anterior side
A:adductor, extensor, internal rotator
N: thoracodorsal n.
3 parts
O:spine of scapula, acromion process, clavicle (latter 1/3)
I:deltoid tuberosity
A:ante-flexion and internal and external rotator
N: axillary n.
O:subscapular fossa
I:lesser tubercle of humerus
A:internal rotation
N: upper and lower subscapular n.
O:supraspinatus fossa
I: greater tubercle
A:weak abduction (bc puts humerous closer to glenoid fossa)
N:suprascapular n.
O:infraspinous fossa
I:greater tubercle
A:external rotation
N:suprascapular n.
teres minor
O:lateral border of scapula
I:greater tubercle
A:external rotation
N:axillary nerve
what are the anterior muscles of the arm?
coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis
O:coracoid process of scapula
I:medial part of humerus
A:flexion, adduction of shoulder
N:musculocutaneous n.
biceps brachii
Olong:supraglenoid tubercle
Oshort:coracoid process
I:radial tuberosity
A:long shoulder flexion
A:flexes elbow and supinates forearm
N:musculocutaneous n.
O:lower half of humerus
I:ulnar tuberosity
A:flexes elbow
N: musculocutaneous n.
what are the posterior muscles of the arm?
triceps brachii and anconeus
triceps brachii
Olong:infraglenoid tubercle
Olateral:posterior part of humerus
Omedial:posterior part of humerus
I:olecranon process of ulna
A:extension of elbow and shoulder (long Head)
N:radial n
O:lateral epicondyle of humerus
A:extension of elbow
N:radial n.
what are the anterior superficial forearm muscles?
pronator teres,flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis
all originate on medial epicondyle and flex
pronator teres
I: inserts on radius
A:pronation of forearm
N:medial nerve
flexor carpi radialis
obliquely into carpal boes
A:flexion and abdcution of wrist (radial deviation)
N:median nerve
palmaris longus
inserts into base of hand-fibrous tissue
a:flexion of wrist
N:median n
flexor carpi ulnaris
inserts into medial side of carpal bones
A:flexion of wrist and adduction (ulnar deviation)
flexor digitorum superficialis
digits 2-5 to base of middle phalanx
A:flexion all but not distal IP joints
N:median nerve
What are the deep anterior forearm muscles?
flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, and pronator quadratus
flexor digitorum profundus
base of distal phalanx; four tendons
A:flexion all even distal IP
N: radial half,tendons 1 and 2 digits 2 and 3--median nerve
ulnar half, tendons 3 and 4, digits 4 and 5--ulnar nerve
flexor pollicis longus
membrane into thumb
A:flexion of wrist, carpometa., and MCP joints
N:median nerve
pronator quadratus
pronation; median nerve
what are the superficial posterior forearm muscles?
brachioradialis,extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris
all come from lateral epicondyle
inserts into arm-radius
A:flexor of elbow
N:radial n
extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
insert into carpals
a:extension, abduction
N:radial nerve
extensor digitorum
extends digits and wrist--even distal IP joints
N:radial nerve
extensor digiti minimi
5th digit
N:radial nerve
extensor carpi ulnaris
a:extensionof wrist and adduction (ulnar deviation)
N:radial nerve
what are the deep posterior forearm muscles?
abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor indicis, supinator
abductor pollicis longus
a: abducts and extends thumb at carpometacarpal joint
N:radial nerve
extensor pollicis brevis
thumb at base of proximal phalanx
A:extension but not at distal joint
N:radial nerve
extensor pollicis longus
base of distal phalangeal joint
a: extension of thumb at all joints
N:radial nerve
extensor indicis
extends all joints
N:radial nerve
n:radial nerve
lateral epicondyle...wraps around radius
where is the anatomical snuff box?
between the extensor pollicis longus and abductor pollicis longus . floor is the deep radial artery before it becomes the deep palmar arch (extensor pollicis brevis inside)
what are the four thenar muscles?
abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, and adductor pollicis muscle
what are the three hypothenar muscles?
abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi, opponens digiti minimi
flexor pollicis brevis
I:base of pollicis
N:median nerve
adductor pollicis
adducts thumb; fibers run obliquely
N:median nerve-lower muscles
ulnar nerve-more distal muscles
dorsal interossei
4 muscles-bipennate muscles
a:abduction of digits 2,3 (2 muscles) and 4
N:ulnar nerve
palmar interossei
3 muscles-inner side of digits
a: adduction of digits 2,4,and 5
N:ulnar nerve
the radial artery is lateral to what muscle at the wrist from an anterior view?
flexor carpi radialis tendon
the ulnar artery and nerve are lateral to what tendon at the wrist from an anterior view?
they are lateral to the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon
what muscle elevates the scapula?
trapezius and levator scapulae
what muscles retract the scapula?
trapezius and rhomboids
what muscles protract the scapula?
serratus anterior and pectoralis minor
what muscles flex the scapula?
pectoralis major, deltoid, long head of biceps brachii, and coracobracialis
what muscles extend the scapula?
latissimus dorsi, deltoid, teres major, triceps brachii (long head)
what two things are contained in the radial groove?
the deep brachial artery and the radial nerve
which muscles internally rotate the scapula?
pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid, teres major, subscapularis
external rotation of the scapula
infraspinatus, deltoid, teres minor
abduction of scapula
deltoid, supraspinatus
adduction of scapula
pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, coracobrachialis
flexion of elbow
brachialis, biceps brachii (long and short), brachioradialis
biceps brachii and supinator
pronator teres, pronator quadratus
extension of elbow
triceps brachii, anconeus
abduction of wrist
flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
adduction of wrist
flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi ulnaris
flexion at wrist
flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus
extension of wrist
extensor carpi radialis (longus and brevis), extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, entensor indicis, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus

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