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Basic immunology


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What are the 3 components of the immune system?
1. Barriers to infection
2. Innate immunity
3. Adaptive immunity
What comprises Barriers to Immunity?
1. Skin
2. Mucus membranes
3. Secretions
How do secretions provide immunity? What specific ones?
1. Physically washes out pathog.
2. Chemicals - Lysozyme, IgA, and acid/alkaline.
What are the 2 parts of natural immunity?
1. Cellular
2. Humoral
What are the cells of Innate Cell-mediated immunity?
1. Mast Cells
2. Neutrophils
3. Macrophages
What are the components of Humoral Innate Immunity?
1. Complement
2. Lysozyme
3. Interferon
Adaptive Immunity is divided into what 2 categories?
1. Cellular
2. Humoral
What makes up cellular adaptive immunity?
T cells
B cells
Plasma cells
What are the 2 components of humoral adaptive immunity?
1. Immunoglobulins
2. Cytoines
What are the 4 types of hypersensitivity reactions?
1. Anaphylactic
2. Cytotoxic
3. Immune complex
4. Delayed T-cell dependent
Which hypersensitivity reactions involve Antibody? Which type?
1. IgE
2. IgG
3. IgG and IgM
Which hypersens rxtns involve complement?
2 and 3
What cells are involved in Anaphylactic hypersensitivity?
Basophils and Mast cells.
What cells are involved in cytotoxic hypersensitivity?
RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets
What cells are involved in immune complex hypersensitivity?
Host tissue cells
What cells are involved in delayed hypersensitivity?
Tcells and Macrophages
What are examples of Anaphylactic hypersensitivity?
Allergies, hay fever, anaphylaxis
What are examples of cytotoxic hypersensitivity?
Transfusion reactions, HDN, thrombocytopenia.
What are examples of immune complex hypersensitivity?
Serum sickness, pneumonitis, etc.
What are examples of delayed hypersensitivity?
Allergy of infection, contact dermatitis.
What factors influence immunogenicity?
Age, nutrition, brain-immune system interaction
what is a hapten?
antigenic determinant incapable of stimulating immune response w/out accompanying carrier.
what is an epitope?
an antigenic determinant.
what is a heteroantigen?
An antigen that stimulates an Antibody that will react with an entirely unrelated surface antigen on cells from a different species.
what are heterophile antigens?
Those that cause cross reaction.
what is an adjuvant?
a substance that ehances an antigen's immunogenicity.
what is the structure of an antibody?
2 heavy and 2 light chains.
What are light chains called?
Kappa and Lambda
what is the variable and constant region of an antibody?
Variable = n terminal
Constant = C
what holds the chains together?
disulfide bonds via cystine residues.
where is the hinge region located?
between the Fab regions and Fc fragment.
What is the Fc fragment?
the carboxy-term end of 2 heavy chains, doesn't bind antigen but is important in opsonization and complement fixation.
What is the Fab fragment?
One L chain and 1/2 H chain joined by an interchain disulfide bond, that binds antigen.
what does Papain split IgG into?
2 Fab + 1 Fc
What does Pepsin split IgG into?
1 (Fab)2 + 1 Fc

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