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Core Concepts in Pharmacology Ch 25


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alimentary canal
AKA gastrointestinal (GI) tract

continuous tube extending from mouth to anus
body breaks down ingested food into small molecules easily absorbed
substances propelled along GI tract by contractions of several layers of smooth muscle
peptic ulcer
lesion/erosion located in either stomach (gastric) or small intestine (duodenal - most common)
parietal cells
secrete 1 to 3L of hydrochloric acid in stomach mucosa daily
Helicobacter pylori
primary cause of peptic ulcers

gram-negative bacterium
loss of appetite
Crohn's disease
ulceration in the lower small intestine

combined w/ulcerative colitis = inflammatory bowel disease
ulcerative colitis
erosions in large intestine

combined w/Crohn's dx = inflammatory bowel disease
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
acidic contents of stomach move upwards into esophagus

causes heartburn & may lead to ulcers esophageal ulcers

caused by loosening of lower esophageal sphincter
H2-receptor antagonist
drug that inhibits effects of histamine at receptors in stomach

usually first choice for treating peptic ulcers
proton pump inhibitors
drugs that reduce acid secretion in stomach by binding irreversibly to enzyme H+,K+-ATPase

widely used in short-term therapy of peptic ulcers
enzyme acting as pumpt to release acid (AKA H+ or protons) onto surface of GI mucosa

located in parietal cells of stomach
alkaline substances used to neutralize stomach acid

effective at reducing s/s of reflux dx
difficult or infrequent bowel movements
dietary fiber
substance neither digested nor absorbed that contributes to fecal mass
evacuation of colon

bowel movement
drug causing complete evacuation of bowel
drug promoting bowel movements
increase in frquency & fluidity of bowel movements

colon does not reabsorb enough water from fecal mass - stools become watery

s/s of underlying dx

reflex primarily controlled by medulla of brain
drug for prevention of nausea & vomiting
vestibular apparatus
portion of inner ear responsible for sense of position

associated with motion sickness
drugs to reduce appetite

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