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Geog 1001


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the growth of interregional and worldwide linkages and the changes they are bringing about
Human well-being
the ability of people to obtain for themselves a healthy life in a place and community of their choosing
Cultural homogeneity
uniformity of ideas, values, technologies, and institutions among culture groups
Lingua franca
a language used to communicate by people who don’t speak one another’s native language
Pangaea hypothesis
the proposal that about 200 million years ago all continents were joined in a single vast continent, called Pangaea
Plate tectonics
a theory proposing that the earth’s surface is composed of large plants that float on top of an underlying layer of molten rock; the movement and interaction of the plates create many of the large features of the earth’s surface, particularly mountains
a catastrophic shaking of the landscape, often caused by the shifting and friction of tectonic plates
an area between plates or a weak point in the middle of a plate where gases and molten rock, called magma, can come to the earth’s surface through fissures and holts in the plate
Ring of Fire
the tectonic plate junctures around the edges of the Pacific Ocean, characterized by volcanoes and earthquakes
Orographic rainfall
rainfall produced when a moving moist air mass encounters a mountain range, rises, cools and releases condensed moisture that falls as rain
Rain shadow
the dry side of a mountain range, facing away from the prevailing winds
Extractive resources
a resource such as mineral ores, timber, or plants that must be mined from the earth’s surface or grown from its soil
the acquisition of a material resource through mining, logging, agriculture or other means
Formal economy
all aspects of the economy that take place in official channels
Informal economy
all aspects of the economy that take place outside of official channels
a (usually) distant land acquired by a more powerful country for economic gain
Multinational corporations
a business organization that operates extraction, production, and/or distribution facilities in multiple countries
wealth in the form of money or property used to produce more wealth
Laissez Faire or Free trade
the movement of goods and capital without government restrictions
a tax imposed by a country on imported goods, usually intended to protect industries within that country
World Trade Organization (WTO)-
a global institution whose stated mission is the lowering of trade barriers and the establishment of ground rules for international trade
Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs)-
requirements for economic reorganization toward less government involvement in industry, agriculture, and social services, sometimes made by the World Bank and IMF as conditions for giving loans to borrowing countries
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita
the market value of all goods and services produced by workers and capital within a particular nation’s borders and within a given year; dividing the value by the number of people in the country results in the per capita value
Purchasing power parity (PPP)-
the amount of goods or services that U.S. $1 will purchase in a given country
the study of population patterns and changes
Subsistence lifestyle
a way of life in which each family group produces its own food, clothing and shelter
Demographic transition
the change from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates that usually accompanies a cluster of other changes such as change from a subsistence to a cash economy, increasing education rates, and urbanization
Sustainable development
efforts to improve standards of living in ways that will not jeopardize those of future generations
Sustainable agriculture
farming that meets human needs without poisoning the environment or using up water and soil resources
Global warming
the predicted warming of the earth’s climate as atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases increase
the use of strategies by countries to ensure that their best interests are served
Cold war era
the period from 1946 to the early 1990s, when the United States and its allies in Western Europe faced off against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republicans and its allies in Eastern Europe
a group of people who share a language, culture, political philosophy, and usually a territory
a political unit, or country, formed by people who share a language, a culture, and a political philosophy
International Monetary Fund (IMF)-
a financial institution funded by the developed nations to help developing countries reorganize, formalize, and develop their economics
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
an association outside the formal institutions of government, in which individuals form widely differing backgrounds and locations share views and activism on political, economic, social or environmental issues

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