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Dilllon's Plate Tectonics Review



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Pacific Ocean
the ocean that is shrinking because of many subduction zones
inner core
a dense ball of solid metal under so much pressure that it cannot become a liquid
the supercontinent that existed about 300 million years ago
the process where the ocean floor sinks back into the mantle
much of earth's continental crust is made of this rock
transfer of energy through space with no direct contact necessary
outer core
a layer of molten metal in earth's center that scientists believe causes earth's magnetic field
Sea Floor Spreading
the theory that new crust is constantly being added to the oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges
transfer of energy through the movement of a fluid (liquid or gas) when warmer fluids rise and cooler, denser fluids sink
most oceanic crust is made of this rock
rift valley
when a divergent boundary happens on land, this forms
type of heat transfer between materials that are touching
Evidence from fossils
Remains of organisms found on widely separated land masses
convection current
the flow that transfers heat within a fluid, happens in Earth's mantle
Plate Tectonics
this theory explains the formation, movement, and subduction of earth's plates
Evidence from Climate Change
continents contained land features and fossil evidence of life no longer able to live in the current climate as evidence that the continents had drifted
mid-ocean ridge
a mountain range on the ocean floor where new crust is added
Atlantic Ocean
the ocean that is growing wider because of sea floor spreading
deep-ocean trenches
deep underground canyons where oceanic crust sinks back into the mantle
layer of the mantle that has the consistency of hot, softened road tar and can bend like plastic
the part of the earth's interior that is made mostly of iron and nickel
the layer of Earth's interior affected by convection currents
Plate Tectonics
pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in slowl, constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
break or crack in Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other
results from a force pressing on an area
convergent boundary
where two plates push together and collide
divergent boundary
where two plates move apart, most are along mid-ocean ridges
transform boundary
a place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions
mountain ranges
formed when two continental plates converge and neither is denser than the other so no subduction occurs
seismic waves
energy produced by earthquakes; by studying these geologists can learn about the structure of Earth
type of heat transfer when water (or chicken soup) comes to a full, rolling boil
the layer of hot but solid rock under earth's crust
scientific theory
a well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
magnetic stripes
provide evidence of sea floor spreading when they show the reversal of magnetic fields
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer skin; includes both dry land and the ocean floor
Alfred Wegener
German scientists who developed Continental Drift theory
subduction zone
this occurs when an oceanic plate converges with continental plate and the more dense oceanic crust sinks under the continental crust
type of heat transfer when you feel the sun's rays warm your face
Lithospheric Plates
a section of earth's lithosphere that carries continents
type of heat transfer you feel when you accidentally touch a hot pan
the uppermost part of the mantle and crust together form this rigid layer
Wegener's hypothesis rejected
because he could not explain the force that pushes or pulls continents

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