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Geog1- Midterm Section 2


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The ability of an object to absorb energy from electromagnetic waves that strike it.

Two good ones are atmosphere and surface of the Earth.

As things get hotter, it gives off its own energy
Horizontal movement of air across the Earth's surface.
Ability of an object to reflect energy.

Snow is good at being absorbed (0.90) and water is bad (0.02).

Albedo goes up at low angles of incidence. That's why the poles are cold (snow + low angle of incidence).

Lighter color- higher
angle of incidence
The angle at which the parallel rays of the sun strikes the earth's surface.

Can figure out with the information of the latitude of the area and the latitude of the subsolar point.

Higher the sun is in the sky, the higher the AOI is.
Direct transfer of energy from one molecule to another.

Limited effect, atmosphere touches the ground.
Vertical movement of energy in a fluid movement.

Extremely important within the atmosphere.
electromagnetic spectrum
Electromagnetic radition arranged according to wavelenth.

Shorter wavelenth -> higher energy / higher temperature
fixed gases
Nitrogen- 78%
Oxygen- 21%
Argon- 1%

Don't change much from time to time and is the same amount in areas.
greenhouse effect
The warming in the lower troposphere because the atmosphere is a poor absorber of shortwave energy and a good absorber of longwave energy (water vapor and carbon dioxide).

1. Solar energy goes thru atmosphere.
2. Heats up surface.
3. Surface heats up atmosphere
4. Absorbed by water vapor and carbon dioxide.
5. Sends energy to space and back toward surface.
infrared radiation
Electromagnetic radiation in the waveleength range that is just longer than visible light.
net radiation
Difference between energy absorbed by an object, and the amount emitted from the object.
ozone layer
A layer of ozone in the atmosphere that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation.

Depletion caused by CFCs that would cause chlorine to get into the ozone and break it down.
radiation deficit
Where less energy is absorbed than is lost.

radiation surplus
Where more energy is coming in than going out so the ground stores more energy and the temperature goes up.
Movement of energy in electromagnetic waves.

Can occur in a vacuum.

Ex- Solar energy from the sun.

The process by which energy is emitted from a body.
Ability of an object to repel energy without adding any energy to what it hits.

Redirected to space.

Ex- Clouds, earth's surface

The energy is not absorbed by anything, doesn't heat anything, and bounces off unchanged.
When energy or wavelengths get deflected from its straight course. Some gets directed back to space while others eventually hits here.

Air molecules scatters lightwaves -> blue sky
shortwave radiation
Wavelengths of radiation emitted by the Sun, especially ultraviolet, visible and short infrared radiation.
Atmospheric layer above the troposphere where it gets warmer as you go up.

Ex- Northern Lights
The ability of a medium to allow electromagnetic rays to pass through it.
The lowest thermal layer of the atmosphere where it gets colder as you go higher.
Above the troposphere where there is no change in temperature.
ultraviolet radiation
Electromagnetic radiation that can cause skin cancer, sunburn and cataracts.
variable gases
Gases that change from time to time and in areas.

Water Vapour- 4%
Carbon Dioxide- 38%
visible light
Waves in the electromagnetic spectrum that the eye can see.

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