This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Biochemistry Chapter 1


copy deck
Active Transport
The energy requiring movement of molecules across a membrane agains a concentration gradient
Addition Reaction
a chemical reaction in which two molecules react to form a third molecule
Amino Acid
type of molecule found within a cell used to build protein polymers
Anabolic Pathway
a series of biochemic reactions in which large complex molecules are syntehesized from smaller precursors
a swequence of 3 ribonucleotides on a tRNA molecule that is complementart to a codon on the mRNA molecule; codon-anticodon binding resuls in the delivery of the correct amino acid to the site or protein synthesis
one of three domains of living organisms; prokaryotic organisms that have the apearance of bacteria and many molecular properties that are similar to the eukaryotes
an organism that transforms light enery (from the sun) or various chemicals into chemical bond energy
one of the three domains of life; single-celled prokaryotes with diverse capacities to exploit their environments
the molecules tht make up living organisms
the use of biological processes to decontaminate toxic waste sites
Catabolic pathway
a series of biochemical reactions in which large complex molecules are degraded into smaller, simpler products
an autotroph who tranforms evergy from chemicals into chemical bond energy
an organism that uses preformed food molecules as its sole source of energy
a sequence of three nucelotides in mRNA that directs the incorporation of an amino acid during protein sythesis or acts as a start or stop signal
an electron deficients species such as a hydrogen ion (H+)
elimination reaction
a reaction in which a double bond is formed when atoms in a molecule are removed
the capacity to do work
a biomolecule that catalyzes a chemical reaction
one of the three domains of life; contains single celled and multicellular eukaryotic organisms
eukaryotic cell
a living cell that possesses a true nucleus
an organism that lives under extreme conditions of temperature, pH, pressure or ionic concentration that would easily kill most organisms
an enzyme that functions under extreme conditions of temperature, prssure, pH, or ionic concentration
fatty acid
a long chain monocarboxylic acid that contains an even number of carbon atoms
functional group
a group of atoms that undergo characteristic reactions when attached to a carbon atom in an organic molecule or a biomolecule
a DNA sequence that codes for a polypeptide, rRNA, or tRNA
gene expression
the mechanisms by which living orgainsms regulate the flow of genetic information
an organism that attains energy by degrading preformed food molecules obtained by conumin other organisms
the capacit of living organisms to regulate metabolic processes despite variability in their internal and external environments
a type of addition reaction in which water is added to a carbon-carbon double bond
a olecule that contains only carbon and hydrogen
a chemic reaction that invovles the reaction of a molecule with water; the process by which moleules are broken into their constituents by adding water
molecules that psosess positive or negative charges or contain relatively large numbers of electronegative oxygen or nitrogen atoms; dissolve easily in water
molecules that possess few if any electonegative atoms; do not dissolve in water
the reversible intercovnersion of isomers
leaving group
the group displaced during a nucleophilic substitution reaction
any of a group of biomolcules that are soluble in nonpolar solvens and nsoluble in water
a biopolymer formed from the linkage of certain biomolcules via covalent bonds; examples include nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides
the total of all chemical reactions in an organism
a polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone with the formula (CH20), where n is at least 3
any change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene
a molecule released at a nerve terminal that binds to an influences the functionof other nerve cels or muscle cells
nucleic acid
a macromolecule composed of nucleotides; DNA and RNA are nucleic acids
an electron-rich atom or molecule
nucleophilc substitution
a reaction in which a nucleophile substitues for an atom or molecular group
a biomolecule coposed oa pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribos) and a nitrogenous base
a membrane-enclosed structure within a eukaryotic cell
oxidation-reduction (redox)
a reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another
the removal of electrons
oxidizing agent
a substance that oxidizes (removes electrons from) another substance; the oxidizing agent is itself reduced in the process
an amino acid polymer composed of fewer than 50 amino acid reisues
peptide bond
an amide linkage in an amino acid polymer
an organism that possesses a mechanism for transforming solar energy into other forms of energy
an organism that uses both light and organic biomolecules as energy sources
an amino acid polymer with more that 50 amino acid residues
a linear or branched polymer of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds
prokaryotic cell
a living cell that lacks a nucleus
a macromolecule coposed of one or more polypeptides
a nitrogenous base with a 2 ring structure; a component of nucelotides
a nitrogensous base with a single ring stucutes; a component of nucelotides
the transfer of electrons
reducing agent
a substance that reducs the oxidation number of another reactant; the reducing agent is itself oxidized in the process
a complex phenomenon such as life can be eventually understood by analyzing its simplest components
a molecule that contains no carbon-carbon doulbe or triple bonds
the basic unit of carboydrates; a class of biomolecule containing hydrozyl groups and an aldehyde group or a ketone group
the process in which single-stranded RNA with a abase sequence comlementarty to the temple strand of DNA is synthesized
the transfer of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages
protein synthesis; the process by which the genetic message carried by mRNA directs the synthesis of polypeptides with the aid of ribosomes and other cell constitituents
movement of the ribosome along the mRNA during translation
a molecule that contains one or more carbon-carbon double or triple bonds
5 insights about life
1) life is complex and dynamic
2. life is organized and self-sustaining
3. life is cellular
4. life is inforation based
5. life adapts and evolves

Deck Info