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AP Psych. - Module 2


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What three men have proven hindsight bias?
Slovic, Fischof, and Wood
How Slovic, Fischof, and Wood proven hindsight bias?
Gave half of members of a group some purporte dpsycholgoical findings and the other half the opposite results; both groups explained the results
How often are students confident about their plans and how often are they correct?
Confident 84% of the time and correct 79% of the time
How often are experts confident and how often are they correct?
Confident 80% of the time and correct 40% of the time.
What did James Randi test?
Auras by asking people if they could tell where they were behind a wall based on the aura
What are the three basic steps of the scientific method?
Make observations, form theories, refine theories in light of new observations
What is an operational definition?
Statement of the procedures used to define research variables, that allows others to replicate their observations
When is a theory useful?
If it: 1. effecitvely organizes a range of self-reports and observations and ; 2. implies clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to derive practical applications
What are the three different types of research?
Descriptive, correlational, and experimental
What type of research is a survey?
Descriptive and correlational
Give an example of unrepresentative statistics.
Shere Hite's book, Women and Love; said 70% or women married 5 years or more were having affairs and 95% felt emotionally harrassed by the men they love, when actually only 1 in 7 actually reported having an affair in their current marriage
What did Andrew Whiten and Richard Byrne witness through naturalistic observation?
Repeatedly saw one yhoung baboon pretending to have been attacked by another as a tactic to get its mother to drive the other baboon away from food.
What does a correlation coefficient show?
The extend to which two things relate; tells nothing about cause and effect
Give two examples of how correlation coefficient can show a relationship, but not cause/effect
Among men, length of marriage correlates positively to hair loss, because both are associated with age; people who wear hats are more likley to suffer skin cancer, because both are associated with fair-skinned ppl.
What percent of ppl. repeat a digit in the lottery?
Who won the lottery twice?
Evelyn Marie Adams
What is Persi Diaconis's quote?
"The really unusual day would be one where nothing unusual happens."
Where are the three goals of experimenters?
Manipulate an independent variable, measure the dependent variable, and control all other variables
Are averages derived from scores with high or low variability more reliable?
Low variability
Why does standard deviation better gauge whether scores are packed together or dispersed?
It uses information from each score
What does statistical significance indicate?
The likelihood that a result will happen by chance. (It does not indicate the importance of the results.)
Is the purpose of an experiment to re-create the exact behaviors of everyday life?
No; the purpose is to test theoretical principles
Describe three similarities that transcend cultural barriers.
1. People diagnose with dyslezia exhibit the same brian malfunction; 2. all languages share deep principles of grammar; 3. same factors contribute to loneliness
What is Roger Ulrich's quote?
"We cannot defend our scientific work with animals on the basis of the similarities between them and ourselves and then defend it morally on the basis of differences."
How many animals are used in research?
30 million
How many animals does the average person eat every year?
20 animals
What percent of psychology's studies involved animals?
Researchers argue that in studying animals, it is not the morality of good versus, but ____ vs. ____.
compassion for animals vs. compassion for people
What percent of animal researchers support government regulations protecting primates, dogs, and cats?
What percent of animal researchers support regualtions providing for human care of rats and mice?
What are the 4 suggestions that the APA and British Psychologicla Society make to investigators?
1. Obtain informed consent of potential participants
2. Protect them from harm and discomfort
3. Treat information about individual participants confidentially
4. Fully explain the research afterwards

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