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Definitions from Unit 5


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Freedom form psychological and physical injury.
Client Safety
ANY one of numerous mechanical devices or chemical agents used to hinder or restrict a patient's movement.
The use of psychotropics, hypnotics, or anxiolytics to control a potentially violent patient.
Chemical Restraints
The coordinated efforts of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems to maintain balance, posture, and body alignment during lifting, bending, moving, and performing activities of daily living.
Body Mechanics
Maintains good muscle tone and prevents injury.
Body Alignment
Enhanced by proper posture.
Body Balance
The result of weight, center of gravity, and balance
Coordinated Body Movement
A force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement.
Used for the purpose of conditioning the body, improving health, and maintaining fitness.
Exercise & Activity
An awareness of the body and its parts.
Controlled by the cerebellum (coordinates body movement) and inner ear (maintains balance)
The extent of movement of a joint, measured in degrees of a circle.
Range of Motion (ROM)
Individually intiated joint movement.
Active Range of Motion (AROM)
Assistant intiated joint movement.
Passive Range of Motion (PROM)
The movement of a limb away from the body.
Movement of a limb toward the median axis of the body.
A "straightening" movement allowed by certain joints of the skeleton that increases the angle between two adjoining bones.
A movement allowed by certain joints of the skeleton that decreases the angle by two adjoining bones.
A condition that involves degeneration of bone mass.
Blood clots that have temporarily lodged in the blood vessel.
Stockings designed to prevent embolisms (blood clots) in non-ambulatory (immobile) patients and are usually only necessary while the patient is in the hospital.
Anti-Embolism Stockings
(Ex. T.E.D. hose)
Joint activity done PRIMARILY by self w/ minimal assistance.
Active Assist Range of Motion
Exercise against resistance of a mobile object.
Resistive Range of Motion
Exercise against resistance of an immobile object.
Isometric Range of Motion
Sleep is a cyclical physiological porcess that alternates with longer periods of wakefulness. The sleep-wake cycle influences and regulates physiological function and behavioral responses.
Physiology of Sleep: KNOW!!
The external pattern of diminished activity for mental and physical rejuvenation.
The extent and pattern of natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which the body is restored.
The 24- hour diurnal (day time active) day-night cycle. Affected by light, temperature, and external factors (such as social life).
Circadian Rhythm
Individualized eccentricities that determine an individual's sleep-wake cycle (i.e. morning person vs. night person).
Biological Clock
Includes lightest level of sleep.
Stage 1: NREM
Period of sound sleep.
Stage 2: NREM
Involves initial stages of deep sleep.
Stage 3: NREM
Deepest stage of sleep.
Stage 4: NREM
Stage of sleep that usually begins about 90 minutes after sleep has begun and vivid, full-color dreaming may occur. Typified by rapidly moving eyes.
REM Sleep
Cycle of sleep when gastric secretions increase.
REM sleep
Name 3 areas of physiological behaviors that increase during REM...
1. Pulse
2. Gastric Secretions
3. Respiratory Rates
Why do we darken the room at night?
Stimuli from sensory organs may activate the reticular system.
16 hours per day
Sleep requirements for Birth to 3 months of age.
14 hours per day
Sleep requirements for 3-12 months of age.
12 hours per day
Sleep requirement for 1-5 years of age.
10 hours per day
Sleep requirement for 6-12 yrs. of age.
7.5 hours per day
Sleep requirement for 13-19 yrs. of age.
6 - 8.5 hours per day
Sleep requirement for 20-40 yrs. of age.
Amount of sleep declines (need doesn't)
40-60 yrs. of age
Episodes of REM sleep shorten and they awaken several times during the night.
60+ yrs of age
Sleep drug that provides only temporary (1 week)increase in the quantity of sleep, eventually causes daytime "hangover", and may worsen sleep apnea in elderly
Drugs that causes nocturia
Drugs that suppress REM sleep
Antidepressants & Stimulants
Drug that speed onset of sleep, disrupts REM sleep, and awakens a person during night and causes difficulty returning to sleep
Alcohol (ETOH)
Drugs that suppress REM sleep and cause increased daytime drowsiness
Drug that prevents person from falling asleep and may cause a person to awaken during the night
What do Sedatives, Hypnotics, Antianxiety drugs, and Alcohol all have in common
All are CNS depressants
Chronic difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakening from sleep and/or shor sleep or non-restorative sleep.
Lack of airflow through the nose & mouth for periods of 10 seconds or longer during sleep.
Sleep Apnea
During a normal period fo wakefullness (i.e. daytime) a person develops a sudden overwhelming feeling of sleepiness and falls asleep
A natural result of dyssomnia. May be due to illness or disease. Common in individuals who work rotating shifts.
Sleep Deprivation
Drugs that, when given at low doses, calm or soothe the CNS without inducing sleep, but at high doses induces sleep
Hypnotic (Induces Sleep)
Drugs that have an inhibitory effect o nthe CNS to the degree that they reduce nervousness, excitability, or irritability, without causing sleep.
Sedatives (Calming Effect)
What are the most common side effects of Benzodiazepines (i.e. Valium)
Drowsiness and Ataxia
Outer layer of skin, bacteria live here
Thick layer of skin - collagen and elastic factors, sweat
Glands that secrete sweat and control temperature
Eccrine glands
Glands found in axilla & genitalia and creat odor from bacterial decompostition of sweat.
Apocrine glands
Skin layer that contains blood vessels, nerves, lymph, and fat
What is the best time to perform a bath?
Whenever the patient would prefer to have one.
When is it appropriate to try to change a patient's hygiene practices?
When the patient's current practices are inadequate for physiological needs.
Practices based on cultural norms (i.e. hot vs. cold showers, water vs. oil)
Cultural Variables
(a factor that affects hygiene)
Disabilities (i.e. post stroke) or limitations (i.e. broken arm) may affect ability or desire to perform certain self-care functions (i.e. brushing teeth)
Physical Condition
(a factor that affects hygiene)
In assessing hygiene what is muscle strength, flexibility/dexterity, balance, coordination, and activity tolerance level considered...
Self Care Ability
In assessing hygiene what are personal preferences
Hygienic Practices
In assessing hygiene what is the need to consider "personl space" factors prior to procedures such as bed bath
Cultural Factors
A localized area of tissue necrosis (death) that tends to develop when soft tissue is compressed between a bony prominence and an external surface for a prolonged period
Pressure Ulcer/Decubitus Ulcer (bedsore)
Localized abscence of blood or major reduction of blood flow resulting from mechanical obstruction
Tissue Ischemia
Death of cells.
Pinkness will not come back after pushing on skin
Nonblanchable (Ex: edema)
Stage where there is nonblanchable erythema on exam, skin remains intact, and is relatively easy to repair.
Decubitus Ulcer Stage I
Stage of partial thickness, involves dermis and epidermis, appears as an abrasion, blister, or shallow crater on exam, and skin may appear red and puffy
Decubitus Ulcer Stage II
Stage where there is full thickness skin loss, includes subcutaneous tissue, may be necrotic, deep cratering and undermining, more difficult to heal due to lack of oxygenation and blood supply.
Decubitus Ulcer Stage III
Stage with full thickness ulcer, involves tendon, bone, ligament, and/or joint, extensive destruction and tissue necrosis, and VERY difficult to heal.
Decubitus Ulcer Stage IV
Normal red tones of light skinned clients are absent (doesn't normally appear on dark skinned individuals)
Period of time that it takes for pink coloration to return to nail bed after pressure applied (average time <2 seconds)
Capillary Refill
What PHYIOLOGICAL changes take place through bathing:
-Improved Circulation
-Improved Respirations
-Maintenance or improvement of muscle tone
When managing a Stage I-II Ulcer what would be sufficient for early erosions?
Topical antibiotics under moist steril gauze.
When managing a Stage I-II Ulcer what may be needed for debridement?
Normal saline wet-to-dry dressings
When managing a Stage I-II Ulcer what would be considered for use if ulcer has not healed 30% within 2 weeks?
Hydrogels or hydrocolloid dressings.
In managing Stage III-IV Ulcers what does surgical management include:
-Debridement of necrotic tissue
-Bony prominence removal
-Skin grafts

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