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Chemistry AS Level - 10.1.1 - Atomic Structure


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What symbol is used to represent the mass number? What is a mass number?
A - The mass number of an electron is the number of protons + the number of neutrons in the nucleus of one atom of the element
What symbol is used to represent the atomic number? What is an atomic number?
Z - The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
An atom of the same element but with a different mass number.
What are some of the isotopes of hydrogen?
^11H, ^21H, ^31H
What are some of the isotopes of Chlorine?
^35 17 Cl, ^37 17Cl
What are the differences between isotopes?
Chemical almost identical, as dictated by number and arrangement of atoms
Physical properties such as rates of diffusion (depends on mass), nuclear properties such as radioactivity and the ability to absorb neutrons.
Different isotopes of the same element also have slightly different boiling points.
What is the mass of an electron?
1/1840 RAM
Post-gcse electrons not just in shells...
Each shell has a particular energy level associated with it and so we often say that electrons move around the nucleus in definite energy levels.
Electric field or magnetic fields...
will deflect any charged particle off its path. Neutral particles are not deflected.
Which of protons and electrons are deflected first? Why?
Electrons - lighter particles are easier to deflect.
Define ISOTOPE - by heart:
ISOTOPES are atoms of the same element, which differ only in the number of neutrons they contain.
Carbon isotopes and their relative abundances:
C-12 98.9, C-13 1.1, C-14 10^-10
(A>r) The RAM of an element compares the masses of atoms. The chosen standard against which all other atoms are compared is carbon-12.

(RAM = AVERAGE mass of 1 atom of an element x 12) / mass of one atom of carbon - 12
What is an ion? How is one produced?
An ion is a charged particle. It is produced when an atom loses or gains one or more electrons.
Acid + Base -->
Salt + Water
metal + acid -->
Salt + hydrogen
metal carbonate + acid -->
salt + carbon dioxide + water
alkali + acid -->
salt + water
All dilute solutions of acid contain:
H+ (aq) can behave as proton donors
define monoprotic (3) and diprotic acids (2) :
one mole of a monoprotic acid produces one mole of protons (hydrochloric, nitric, ethanoic)
one mole of a diprotic acid produces two moles of protons (sulphuric, H>2 CO>3)

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