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Core Concepts in Pharmacology Ch 20


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non-specific body defense occuring in response to injury or antigen
chemical released by mast cells in response to antigen

- dilation of blood vessels
- smooth muscle constriction
- tissue swelling
- itching
causes effects similar to histamine

stored & released by mast cells
vasodilator that causes pain

effects similar to those of histamine
series of proteins combined together in cascade fashion to neutralize or destroy and antigen
- increased capillary permiability
- WBC attraction to inflammation site
- pain

stored & released by mast cells
mast cells
located in tissue spaces under epithelial membranes
(skin, bronchial tree, digestive tract, & along blood vessels)

detect foreign agents or injury & respond by releasing histamine
increase in blood supply to tissue causing redness, pain, and swelling
acute allergic response to antigen resulting in severe hypotension

may cause death if untreated
- itching
- pain
- edema
- vasodilation
- bronchoconstriction

located in smooth muscle of vascular system
causes secretion of large amounts of hydrochloric acid in stomach (where they're located)
foreign substances that elicit a specific immune response
primary cell of immune system that interacts w/antigens
humoral immunity
body defense mechanism involving production & release of antibodies

initiated when antigen encounters a B cell (type of lymphocyte)
B cell
essential lymphocyte for humoral immune response

makes plasma cell 'clones' of itself
plasma cells
cell derived from B cells that produces antibodies

protein produced by body in response to antigen
immunoglobulins (Ig)
AKA antibodies

proteins produced by the body in response to an antigen
memory B cells
remember previous antigen interaction
helper T cells
lymphocyte responsible for activating most other immune cells (includes B cells)

coordinates humoral & cell-mediated immune responses

target of human immunodeficiency virus
cytotoxic T Cells
lymphocyte that directly attacks & destroys antigens
produced by WBCs (interleukins - leukotrienes - interferon - tumornecrosis factor) that guide immune response
memory T cells
T-lymphocyte that remembers previous exposure to antigen
allergic rhinitis
AKA hay fever

sneezing, itchy throat, watery eyes, & nasal congestion resulting from exposure to antigens
H1-receptor antagonists
AKA antihistamines

blocks effects of histamine in smooth muscle in bronchial tree
poisoning due to aspirin & aspirin-like drugs

S/S: tinnitus - dizziness - headache - sweating
ringing in the ears
alternate-day therapy
drug taken every other day to minimize side effects
Cushing's syndrome
too much corticosteroids in blood
transplant rejection
immune system recognizes a transplanted tissue as foreign & attacks it
drugs given to dampen immune response
biological products that prevent disease
AKA immunization

receivinig a vaccine or toxoid to prevent disease
substance chemically modified to remove harmful nature but is still able to elicit immune response from body
additional dose of vaccine given months/years after initial dose to increase effectiveness of vaccine
measurement of amount of antibody produced by body after vaccine has been administered
AKA: Benadryl
CLASS: H1-receptor antagonist
ACTION: 1st gen. antihistamine - reduces inflammation - blocks H1 receptors w/i smooth muscle cells of resp tract & endothelial cells lining blood vessels in skin
A/E: signifcant drowsiness - CNS stimulation - dry mouth - tachycardia - mild hypotension
AKA: Allegra
CLASS: H1-receptor antagonist
ACTION: 2nd gen. antihistamine - blocks effects of histamine at H1 receptor
A/E: drowsiness - upset stomach
AKA: Flonase
CLASS: intranasal glucocorticoid
ACTION: decreases local inflammation in nasal passage
A/E: nasal irritation & bleeding
AKA: Beconase - Vancenase
CLASS: intranasal glucocorticoid
ACTION: decreases local inflammation in nasal passage
A/E: nasal irritation & bleeding
AKA: Afrin - NeoSynephrine
CLASS: sympathomimetic
ACTION: stimulates alpha-adrenergic receptor of sympathetic nervous system - causes small arterioles in nasal passages to constrict - produces drying of mucous membranes
A/E: rebound congestion - minor stinging - nasal dryness
pseudoephedrine hydrochloride
AKA: Sudafed
CLASS: sympathomimetic
ACTION: stimulates alpha-adrenergic receptor of sympathetic nervous system - causes small arterioles in nasal passages to constrict - produces drying of mucous membranes
A/E: rebound congestion
AKA: Naprosyn - Aleve
CLASS: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
ACTION: inhibits prostaglandin synthesis through non-selective inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes
A/E: GI upset - dizziness - drowsiness - prolonged bleeding time
AKA: Meticorten - Prelone
CLASS: glucocorticoid
ACTION: suppresshistamine & prostaglandins - inhibit immunity by suppressing functions of phagocytes & lymphocytes - combined effects reduce inflammation
A/E: Chusing's syndrome - elevated glucose - gastriculcers - weakness - bruising
AKA: Neoral - Sandimmune
CLASS: immunosuppressant
ACTION: inhibits helper T cells
A/E: reduction of urine flow - tremor - htn - ^ hepatic enzyme values
Long-term therapy with glucocorticoids may result in Chushing's syndrome.

The two major types of T-cells are called 1_____ T-cells and 2_____ T-cells.
1 cytotoxic (CD-8)
2 helper (CD-4)
Drug classes used to prevent allergic rhinitis include 1_____, 2_____, and 3_____.
1 antihistamines
2 glucocorticoids
3 sympathomimetics
The use of hydrocortisone would be contraindicated in a client experiencing which of the following?
a. an active infection associated with inflammation
b. pain associated with inflammation
c. nasal congestion
d. hypertension
a. an active infection assoicated with inflammation
Histamine is a very potent:
a. vasodilator
b. vasoconstrictor
c. sympathomimetic
d. cardiotonic agent
a. vasodilator
H2-receptors are found in the:
a. bronchial tree
b. stomach
c. reproductive tract
d. smooth muscle of the vascular system
b. stomach
Memory B-cells remember the initial antigen interaction and secrete high levels of antibodies in approximately:
a. 2-3 hours
b. 2-3 days
c. 2-3 weeks
d. 2-3 months
b 2-3 days
Glucocorticoids have joined antihistamines as first-line drugs in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. For theis disorder, glucocorticoids are administered via which route?
a. oral
b. topical
c. IM
d. intranasal
d. intranasal
Rebound congestion is most common with which class of medications?
a. antihistamines
b. intranasal sympathomimetics
c. intranasal glucocorticoids
b. intranasal sympathomimetics
Oxymetazoline stimulates _____ receptors in the autonomic nervous system.
a. alph-adrenergic
b. beta1-adrenergic
c. beta2-adrenergic
d. cholinergic
a. alpha-adrenergic
Aspirin causes irreversible inhibition of:
a. prostaglandin synthase
b. mast cells
c. HMG CoA reductase
d. cyclooxygenase
d. cyclooxygenase
Which class of drugs has the potential to suppress the normal functions of the adrenal gland, if given for prolonged periods?
b. H2-receptor antagonists
c. immunosuppressants
d. glucocorticoids
d. glucocorticoids
Which of the following drug classes is most effective at relieving severe inflammation?
b. systemic glucocorticoids
c. H2-receptor antagonists
d. COX-2 inhibitors
b. systemic glucocorticoids
The primary adverse effects from cyclosporine occur in the :
a. immune system
b. lung
c. GI tract
d. kidney
d. kidney
Which of the following is NOT a type of vaccine suspension?
a. live microbes
b. killed microbes
c. microbes that are alive but attentuated
d. bacterial toxins
a. live microbes

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