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Define Pneumonia
Lower respiratory tract infection involving the alveoli. Presence of infiltrates on CXR to distinguish from bronchitis
Define Bronchitis
LRTI involving bronchi
Acute bronchitis often caused by:
Chronic bronchitis often caused by:
bacteria, associated w/ smoking/COPD
Define bronchiolitis
LRTI involving very small bronchi, esp in infants/young children
Clinical Findings in Typical Pneumonia
high fever, productive cough, chest pain, lobar/segmental consolidation on CXR
Clinical Findings in Atypical Pneumonia
low/no fever, dry cough, no chest pain, gradual onset, negative gram, patchy infiltrate on CXR
Bugs causing community acquired pneumonia
strep pneumoniae, haemophilus infulenzae, legionella pneumophila, chlamydia pneumoniae, mycoplasma pneumoniae, moraxella catarrhalis
Bugs causing nosocomial pneumonia
s. aureus, mixed anaerobic/aerobic bact, coliforms: e. coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia, proteus
Post-influenza predisposes to pneumonia from:
s. aureus
military recruits predisposed to PNA from:
m. pneumoniae, adenoviruses
Air conditioning/tap water aerosols predispose to PNA from:
Alcohol predisposes to PNA from:
pneumococci, legionella, h. flu, klebsiella
COPD predisposes to PNA from:
h. flu, klebsiella
Severe neutropenia predisposes to PNA from:
coliforms, pseudomonas, s. aureus
cystic fibrosis predisposes to PNA from:
pseudamonas auruginosa
Ventilator associated PNA:
coliforms, pseudomonas, s. aureus
Predisposing factors to LRTI
Stupor: suppressed cough reflex; viral resp infxn, immunosuppresion
PNA bugs by age: neonates
Group B Strep, E. Coli, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
PNA bugs by age: Infants
chlamydia trachomatis; RSV, parainfluenza
PNA bugs by age: Young children
strep pneumoniae, h. flu, RSV, parainfluenza
PNA bugs by age: Older children
m. pneumoniae, strep pneumoniae, adenovirus
PNA bugs by age: young adults
m pneumoniae, chlamydia trachomatis, strep pneumoniae, adenovirus
PNA bugs by age: older adults
strep pneunomiae, h. flu, legionella pneumophila, influenza
Lung abscess formed by (bugs):
anaerobes (Peptostrep, fusobacterium, bacteroides); facultatives (viridans, klebsiella, s. aureus)

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