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chapter 3 psychology


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genetic structure from parents
outward appearance and repertory of behaviors
the tendency of cultures to respond adaptively through learning, to environmenttal change
cultural evolution
the inheritance of physical and psychological traits from ancestors
the study of the machanisms of heredity
genetic material in the nucleus of each of your cells
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
DNA organized into tiny units
chromosomes that contain genes coding for development of male or female physical characteristics
sex chromosomes
the full sequence of genes found on the chromosomes with the associated DNA
unite genetics and psychology to explore the causal link between inheritance and behavior
human behavior genetics
provides evolutionary explanations for the social behavior and social systems of humans and other animal species
extend evolutionary explanations to include other aspects of human experience, such as how the mind functions
evolutionary psychology
highly localized brain injuries
uses pulses of magnetic stimulation to create temporary, reversible lesions in human participants
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
an amplified tracing of the brain activity
electroencephalogram (EEG)
combines some of the benefits of both techniques by detecting magnetic changes in the flow of blood to cells in the brain
functional MRI (FMRI)
regulates the actions of the body's skeletal muscles
somatic nervous system
sustains basic life processes
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
governs responses to emergency situations
sympathetic division
monitors the routine operation of the body's internal functions
parasympathetic division
contains structures that collectively regulate the internal state of the body
brain stem
located at the very top of the spinal cord, is the center for breathing, blood pressure, and the beating of the heart
system involved with motivation, emotion, and memory processes
limbic system
integrates sensory information, coordinates your movements, and facilitates abstract thinking and reasoning
cerebrum and the cerebral cortex
directly above the medulla. provides inputs to other structures in the brain stem and to the cerebellum
a dense network of nerve cells that serves as the brain's sentinel
reticular formation
channels incoming sensory information to the appropriate area of the cerebral cortex, where that information is processed
attached to the brain stem at the base of the skull...coordinates bodily movements, controls posture, and maintains equilibrium
system that mediates motivated behaviors, emotional states, and memory processes
limbic system
the largest of the limbic system structures, plays an important role in the acquisition of memories
plays a role in emotional control and the formation of emotional memories
one of the smallest structures in the brain, yet it plays a vital role in many of your most important daily actions
body's internal equilibrium
occupys two-thirds of the brains total mass
outer surface of the cerebrum, made up of billions of cells in a layer about a tenth of an inch thick
cerebral cortex
symmetrical halves of the cerebrum
cerebral hemispheres
thick mass of nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres
corpus callosum
divides each hemisphere vertically
central sulcus
divides each hemisphere horizontally
lateral fissure
lobe involved in motor control and cognitive activities, such as planning, making decisions, and setting goals
frontal lobe
lobe responsible for the processes of hearing
temporal lobe
lobe that is the final destination for visual information
occipital lobe
controls body's 600 voluntary muscles
motor cortex
processes information about temperature, touch, body position, and pain
somatosensory cortex
cortex where processes such as planning and decision making are believed to occur
association cortex
function where one cerebral hemisphere plays the primary role in accomplinshing that function
processes information bit by bit
processes information with respect to global patterns
a network of glands that manufacture and secrete chemical messengers called hormones into the bloodstream
endocrine system
the "master gland". produces about ten different kinds of hormones that influence the secretions of all the other endocrine glands, as well as a hormone that influences growth
pituitary gland
stimulates production of sperm
essential to the hormonal chain reaction that triggers the release of ova from a woman's ovaries, making her fertile
a cell specialized to receive, process, and/or transmit information to other cells within the body
the part of the cell that receives incoming signals; branches
cell body
neurons that carry messages from sense receptor cells toward the central nervous system
sensory neurons
neurons that carry messages away from the central nervous system toward the muscles and glands
motor neurons
the bulk of neurons in the brain are this...which relay messages from sensory neurons to other interneurons or to motor neurons
they hold neurons in place
dont fire
excitable portions of the cell membrane that selectively permit certain ions to flow in and out
ion channels
the size of the action potential is unaffected by increases in the intensity of stimulation beyond the threshold level
all-or-none law
refratory period where further stimulation, no matter how intense, cannot cause another action potential to be generated
absolute refractory period
refractory period where the neuron will fire only in response to a timulus stronger than what is ordinarily necessary
relative refractory period
the terminal button of the sending neuron
presynaptic membrane
the surface of a dendrite or soma of a receiving neuron
postsynaptic membrane
biochemical substances that stimulate other neurons
any substance that modifies or modulates the activities of the postsynaptic neuron
changes in the performance of the brain
the production of new brain cells from naturally occurring stem cells

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