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bio chapter 3


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a molecule shaped like a head with 2 tails the head is polar and the 2 tails are nonpolar. The head is attracted to water molecules which are also polar
lipid bilayer
a double layer of phospholipids
cell surface protiens
protiens within the plasma membrane of a cell
cell surface protiens that have a series of non polar amino acid sequences causing them to loop back and fourth through the membrane bilyer many times
receptor protiens
specialized to transmit information from world outside cell to interior
chemicals that are secreted by tissues called glands
cell surface markers
long exterior arms on cell surface protiens with carbohydrates attached to them
passive transport
movement of a substance through a cell's membrane without the expenditure of the cellular energy.
the net movement of particles from areas of high concentration to areas of low concenration
the situation that exists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space
a substance that dissolves in another
a substance that dissolves the solute
mixture of the solute and the solvent
net water movement through a membrane in response to the concentration of a solute
osmotic pressure
the increaed water pressure that results from osmosis
describes a solution with a lowerconcentratin of solute molecules then the solution across a selectivelt permiable membrane
the surrounding solution that has a lower cosentration of solutes then the cell.
concentration of solutes in the cell and fluid is the same.
selectivly permeable
allows passage of some solutes but not others
facilitated diffusion
diffusion through selective pores
protien pumps
causes the production of APT molecules
sodium- potassium pumps
uses some of this APT to acumulate an abudance of sodium ions outside the cell
coupled channels
carry the sodium ions along with food molecules back inside the cell
active transport
using energy to transport a particle through a membrane against a concentration gradient
active transport of protons to make ATP
the process of a cell engulfing the particle in order to consume larger meals
what the endocytosis is refurred to if the material brought into the cell is liquid and contains dissolved molecules
if the material brought into the cell is another cell or other fragment of organic matter
dumping the excretions or waste outside a cell by discarding them from waste vacuoles that fuse with the plasma membrane
chemicals that a nerve cell uses to communicate with another nurve cell
chemical signal that the nurve releases into the gap between it and the muscle is a small neurotransmitter called ...
gated channel
a chanel that can open or shut
chemically gated
its opening and closing depends on the binding of the chemical in the neutraltransmitter acetylchole
voltage- gated
composed of protiens that weave in and out of the membrane

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