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Anatomy Muscles 25-50


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Stylohyoid origin and insertion
origin: Styloid process of temporal bone; insertion: Hyoid bone
Mylohyoid action
Elevates hyoid bone and floor of mouth, enabling tongue to exert backward and upward pressure that forces food bolus into pharynx
Mylohyoid innervation
Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
Digastric origin and insertion
origin: Lower margin of mandible (anterior belly) and mastoid process of the temporal bone (posterior belly); insertion: By a connective tissue loop to hyoid bone
Stylohyoid action
Elevates and retracts hyoid, thereby elongating floor of mouth during swallowing
Stylohyoid innervation
Facial nerve
Styloglossus origin and insertion
origin: Styloid process of temporal bone; insertion: Lateral inferior aspect of tongue
Digastric action
Acting in concert, the digastric muscles elevate hyoid bone and steady it during swallowing and speech; acting from behind, they open mouth (prime mover) and depress mandible
Digastric innervation
Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve for anterior belly; Facial nerve for posterior belly
Hyoglossus origin and insertion
origin: Body and greater horn of hyoid bone; insertion: Inferolateral tongue
Styloglossus action
Retracts (and elevates) tongue
Styloglossus innervation
Hypoglossal nerve
Genioglossus origin and insertion
origin: Internal surface of mandible near symphysis; insertion: Inferior aspect of the tongue and body of hyoid bone
Hyoglossus action
Depresses tongue and draws its sides downward
Hyoglossus innervation
Hypoglossal nerve
Buccinator origin and insertion
origin: Molar region of maxilla and mandible; insertion: Orbicularis oris
Genioglossus action
Primarily protrudes tongue, but can depress or act in concert with other extrinsic muscles to retract tongue
Genioglossus innervation
Hypoglossal nerve
Lateral Pterygoid origin and insertion
origin: Greater wing and lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone; insertion: Condyle of mandible and capsule of temporomandibular joint
Buccinator action
Draws corner of mouth laterally; compresses cheek (as in whistling and sucking); holds food between teeth during chewing; well developed during nursing infants
Buccinator innervation
Facial nerve
Medial Pterygoid origin and insertion
origin: Medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone, maxilla, and palatine bone; insertion: Medial surface of mandible near its angle
Lateral Pterygoid action
Protrudes mandible (pulls it anteriorly); provides forward sliding and side-to-side grinding movements of the lower teeth
Lateral Pterygoid innervation
Trigeminal nerve
Temporalis origin and insertion
origin: Temporal fossa; insertion: Coronoid process of mandible via a tendon that passes beneath zygomatic arch

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