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What shape are the kidneys.
Where are the kidney's located?
12 Thoracic and 3rd Lumbar vertebrae
Which kidney is higher?
Where is the bladder located in the male? female?
Male: against rectum
Female: behind uterus
An average bladder can hold ___ mL of urine.
What structure is attached to the kidneys?
What is the function of the ureters?
carry waste to the bladder
Where do you find sterile urine?
Approx. How long is the ureter in the male? female?
Male: 20 cm
Female: 4-6 1/2 cm
Structure that carries urine out of the body
What are the 3 sections of the male urethra?
Prostatic, Membranous, Penile
Approx. how much urine does the average person produce a day?
1-2 L
What is urine made up of?
95% water, 5% solute
Name some of the solutes found in urine.
Urea, uric acid, creatine, ammonia
What is the function of the nephrons?
remove waste from kidney
What percent of cardiac output runs through the kidney's?
What is the glomerus?
cluster of capillaries
How many L. of blood flow through the nephrons daily?
180 L
What does the glmerus filter?
What is proteinuria?
Protein in the urine
How does alcohol increase Urinary Output?
Stops the anti-dierutic hormone?
What substance found in drinks ups UOP?
What is urinary retention?
accumulation of urine in the bladder because the bladder cannot empty
S/S of urinary retention
feeling of pressure, discomfort, tenderness over symphasis pubis restlessness
what are some factors that effect urinary elimination?
growth and development, disease, mobility
How many mL of urine make for a distended bladder?
> 1000mL
What causes urinary retention?
enlarged prostate, urethral stricture, SCI, emotional, anxiety, meds.
Interventions for distended bladder
up fluid intake, increase activity,catheterization
What percent of all nosocomial infects are UTI's?
What is bacteriuria?
bacteria in urine
What are some causes of UTI's?
up fluid intake, antibiotics, teaching
What are the types of incontinence?
total, functional, stress, urge, reflex
What is total incontinence?
no control of elimination, constant and unpredictable
Is functional incontinence voluntary or involuntary?
What is stress incontinence caused by?
increased abdominal pressure
What are the symptoms of stress incontinence?
dribbling of urine, urgency
Name some situations where stress incontinence can occur.
While coughing, laughing, vomitting, pregnancy
What causes Urge incontinence?
decrease in bladder capacity
What are some symptoms of Urge incontince?
urgency and frequency
What causes reflex incontinence?
spinal injury or disease
Does a person with relex incontinence have an urge to void?
What happens with reflex incontinence?
the bladder spasms at regular intervals
Which type of incontinence is easiest to control?
What are the two types of urinary diversions?
continent and incontinent
What procedure is done with an incontinent diversion?
What is a ureterostomy?
surgical procedure creating a stoma on outer wall for continuous urine drainage
What do they do for a continent urinary diversion?
make a continent pouch inside the abd.
What is a continent pouch?
pouch inside abd where urine is stored until pt. cateterizes and removes
What is a continent pouch made from?
What are some problems with both the continent and incontinent diversions?
Skin breakdown and fluid and electrolyte imbalance
What is the main bacteria that causes UTI's?
Where can UTI's occur?
anywhere on the urinary tract
What is urgency?
immediate need to void
What can cause urgency?
full bladder and/or UTI
What is Dysuria?
painful urination
What causes dysuria?
bladder inflammation and trauma
What is frequency?
voiding in short intervals
What can cause frequence?
increased fluid intake, pressure on bladder, pregnancy
What is hesitancy?
difficulty starting urination
What can cause hesitancy?
enlargement of prostate and anxiety
What is polyuria?
voiding large amounts
What can cause polyuria?
excess fluid intake, D.M.
What is oliguria?
decreased urine output
What causes oliguria?
dehydration, renal failure
What is nocturia?
increase in urine output during the night
What causes nocturia?
excess fluids (esp around bedtime)and caffeine
What is hematuria?
blood in the urine
What causes hematuria?
neoplasms of the kidney, glomerular disease
What do you monitor when assessing Urinary Ouput?
Intake and Output of the patient
What does intake include?
IV, oral - including soups, coffee, jello, broth, and ice
What does output include?
NG tubes, chest tube, JP (and other) drains, foley catheters, elimination
What does the color of urine look like?
pale straw to amber in color
What can change the color of urine?
concentration and hematuria
What is the clarity of urine?
after voiding - tranparent
When can urine be cloudy?
after it sits awhile, when there is bacteria present, and during renal failure
What odor does urine have?
What is a urinalysis?
client urinates in cup and it is sent to the lab
Which urine test is not sterile?
What is a midstream urine test?
"clean catch" start to void before catching urine in "midstream"
What is a C and S test?
culture and sensitivity
Where must a C & S test come from?
How does a 24 hr urine test work?
start time, waste 1st sample, keep the rest for 24 hr period, keeping the last sample
What is a KUB?
kidneys, ureters and bladder x-ray showing gross anatomy
What is an IVP?
Intravenous pyelogram
What does an IVP allow the physician to do?
view entire urinary system and assess renal function
Does an IVP use dye injection
What are some reactions a patient may have from the dye in an IVP?
factial flushing, dizziness
What specific allergy should you look for before doing an IVP?
What is a renal scan?
indirect visualization of urinary tract
What is injected in a renal scan?
radio isotopes
What information does a renal scan give you?
info about blood flow and anatomical structures
When is a renal scan indicated?
in clients unable to have IVP
What is a computerized axial tomography used for?
to obtain detailed image with in a certain plain
What can you visualize with a CT?
tumors, obstructions, retroperitoneal masses, and lymph node enlargement
What is a renal ultrasound?
painless, non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess urinary disorders
What does a renal ultrasound identify?
gross renal anatomy and structure, abnormalities of kidney and lower UT
What is an angiogram/arteriogram?
invasive radiographic procedure using a contrast material to outline the vascular supply to the kidneys
What is catheterization?
introducing a tube through urethra into bladder to drain urine
What are the types of catheterizations?
intermittent and indwelling
What is an intermittent catheter?
straight cath to drian urine - not permanent
What is an indwelling catheter?
a long term cather used for bladder emptying

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