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Medical Microbiology Exam 1


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copy deck
-no nuclear membrane
-true cell structure
-fungi, parasites
-smallest of infectious agents
-consists of either RNA or DNA
-absolute parasites
Key Events in the Viral process
Attachment and Penetration
Viral mRNA synthesis
Viral protein synthesis
Progeny Virion Assembly
Virion Release from Cell
Surface antigen that binds to the Fc region of IgG and makes it unavailable to the receptor site on the phagocyte
Protein A
Surface antigen that promotes adherence to tissues, catheters, etc.
Clumping Factor
Surface antigen that mediates adhesion by binding to tissue fibronectin
Teichoic Acid
Extracellular Enzyme that prevents opsonization and phagocytosis
Extracellular Enzyme that plays a role in pathogenesis of boils and acne
Extracellular Enzyme that hydrolyses hyaluronic acid
Extracellular Enzyme that cleave DNA and RNA
Toxin that penetrates blood vessels either causing leaky or broken cells
Toxin that when released into the intestines causes cramps and diarrhea and/or vomitting
Toxin that causes the skin to shed
Epidermolytic / Exfoliative Toxin (ET)
Toxin cause when a bacteria infects locally then breaks through to the blood stream
Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin
Antigens, mostly from bacterial toxins, that interact with a set of T-lymphocytes bearing a set of products of the V_T receptor genes. As a consequence these activate large numbers of T cells and result in SHOCK
Gram +
-transmitted via direct contact or by contaminated linens and clothing.
-ingestion of contaminated food resulting in food poisoning
-Aspiration of nasopharyngeal secreations resulting in pneumonia
Stahpylococcus Aureus
Causes: Inflammatory Diseases
Furunculosis and Carbunculosis (BOIls)
Stahpylococcus Aureus
This toxin mediated illness results in skin exfoliation
SSSS- Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
This in food causes food poisoning after an incubation period of 2-6 hours. Toxin is ingested where it interacts with mucosa resulting in vomiting and diarrhea
Staphylococcal Aureus
This infection (a) is caused by what microbe (b) growing on a tampon causing TSST-1 to enter the bloodstream resulting in fever, rash, and shock (death occurs in about 3% of cases)
a: Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)
b: Stahpylococcus Aureus
Stahpylococcus Aureus presents this way in a colony morphology
large, creamy, opaque colonies, usually Beta hemolytic
Stahpylococcus Aureus presents this way in Biochemical testing
catalase +
mannitol/salt +
Coagulase +
Stahpylococcus Aureus treatment
Beta lactase resistant penicillans such as Methicillan, nafcillon, cloxacillon etc.
and if MRSA (contracted in healthcare setting or found resistant to penicillans) treated with Vancomycin
Stahpylococcus Aureus prevention
-colonizes prosthetic (plastic) devices
Stahpylococcus Epidermidis
produces biofilm
Stahpylococcus Epidermidis
Stahpylococcus Epidermidis sources
patient skin or hands of hospital staff
Stahpylococcus Epidermidis effect on plastic
biofilm errodes the plastic surface and/or breaks off and disseminates
Stahpylococcus Epidermidis treatment
removal of plastic device
Why is vancomycin the antibiotic choice when treating Stahpylococcus Epidermidis?
40% of coagulase-negative staphylococci are resistant to Beta-lactamase resistant antibiotics
Antibiotics used to treat Stahpylococcus Epidermidis
vancomycin, Rifampin, gentamicin
Why is Staphylococcus Saprophyticus generally overlooked in urinary tract infections and why is this important?
Only 30% of cases are caused by S. Saprophyticus which is gram positive. Most cases are caused by E. coli which is gram negative. If treated with gram negative antibiotics, the infection will not go away.
Group characteristics:
-Gram + cocci in chains
-Catalase negative
-Nutritionally fastidious
-Hemolysis: alpha, beta, or none
Metabolism: aetolerant anaerobes
Streptococci Group Characteristics
-Gram positive cocci in chains
-Catalase negative
-Nutritionally fastidious
-Hemolysis: alpha, beta, or none
-Metabolism: aerotolerant anaerobes
This presents a surface antigen hyaluronic acid capsule as an immunological disguise and to inhibit phagocytosis
Streptococcus Pyogenes
This presents a surface antigen of M Protein which makes it 'fuzzy looking' to antibodies and inhibits phagocytosis
Streptococcus Pyogenes
This a) bacteria secretes streptolysin O (SLO), which is a b)toxin
a)Streptococcus Pyogenes
b) oxygen sensitive
This a) bacteria secretes streptolysin S (SLS), which is a toxin that does what in blood agar? b)
a) Streptococcus Pyogenes
b) it creates a zone of beta hemolysis surrounding GAS colonies
This enzyme is produced by Streptococcus Pyogenes and digests blood clots which aids in what?
streptokinase digests blood clots which aids in he invasion of wounds

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