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BIO 112 Study Guide 1


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What are the three main themes of BIO 112?
Ecology, evolution, and phylogeny & systematics (how organisms progress over geological time)
What is ecology?
the study of the relationships of organisms with one another and with their environment.
What does behavioral ecology study?
It studies how a species' behavior affects their environment.
What does population ecology study?
It studies how members of a population affect their environment, focusing on factors that affect population density and growth.
What is community ecology?
It studies how the interactions between species affect community structure and organization, such as predators/prey.
What does ecosystem ecology study?
It studies energy flow and chemical cycling among various biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem.
What is conservation biology?
the science with the goal of countering the biodiversity crisis (the current rapid decrease in earth's variety of life).
What are biotic components of ecology?
living organisms that are part of the environment
What are abiotic components of ecology?
non-living chemical and physical factors of the environment, such as weather patterns, climate, microclimates, geology, and soil.
List the components in the abiotic hierarchy.
Subatomic particles, atoms/elements, molecular compounds, and organelles
List the components in the biotic hierarchy.
Cells, tissue (four types), organs, organ systems, organism, species, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere, universe, and beyond
What is Ernst Mayer's definition of a species?
A group of interbreeding organisms that produce viable offspring
What is the difference between a population and a community?
a group of organisms of the same species whereas the other is a group of different populations
What makes the ecosystem different from a community?
It has abiotic factors thrown into the mix.
What is a biome?
a major ecosystem classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptation of organisms to that particular environment
What is the biosphere?
the entire portion of earth inhabited by life
What is phylogeny?
the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
What is systematics?
the study of biological diversity in an environmental context, taking into account taxonomy and phylogeny
What kingdoms are included with eukaryotes?
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
What is biogeography?
the study of population distribution over geographic area and geological time
What is dispersal in regards to distribution?
the distribution of individuals within geographical population boundaries
What does range encompass in regards to distribution?
encompasses the potential and actual distribution of a species, including the many factors that limit it
What is encroachment?
the distribution of a non-native species
What is the tens rule?
a statistical prediction that one out of every 10 species introduced will become established, and one out of those established 10 will become common enough to become pests
What aspects are looked at when studying lifecycles?
natility rate, mortality rate, reproductive cycles, and life expectancy
Which aspects of the lifecycle does life expectancy affect?
brood size, number of offspring, and frequency of reproductive cycles
What is parasitism?
a symbiotic relationship where the parasite benefits at the host's expense
What is co-evolution?
the mutual influence of evolution of two different species interacting with one another and reciprocally influencing the other's adaptations; for example, the perpetual adaption of predator and prey
What type of factors are predation and altruism?
types of biotic factors
At which latitudes are deserts usually found?
30 and 90 degrees latitude
At which latitudes are rainforests typically found?
0 degrees latitude
At which latitudes are temperate regions found?
60 degrees latitude
What factor drives wind and precipitation?
temperature drives these factors
At which horizon is bedrock located?
C horizon
At which horizon is organics located?
O horizon
At which horizon is topsoil (sand, clay, silt) located?
A horizon
Why does water cling to clay?
due to the clay's negative charge and the slight polarity of water
What is the negative effect of clearing vegetation for development?
because of this, the rate of erosion accelerates and thereby increases the rate of desertification and allows for landslides
What is a microclimate?
the variations of climate on a very tiny scale, such as under a log
What are two factors of microclimates?
soil type and mineral concentration are factors of these
What is micro-topography?
the topography on a very tiny scale, such as under a rock or log

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