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! Psychology- Prologue


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the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
the science of behavior and mental processes
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
a brance of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
Wilhelm Wundt
Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany.
Edward Bradford Titchener
Used introspection to search for the mind's structural elements.
William James
Developed pragmatism, fuctionalism, took questions from students...
Mary Whiton Calkins
Refused a Ph.D, became the president of the American Psychological Association.
Margaret Floy Washburn
First woman to receive a psychology Ph.D, she synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mind
John B. Watson
Worked with Rosalie Rayner, championed psychology as the science of behavior and demonstrated conditional responses on "Little Albert."
B.F. Skinner
A leading "behaviorist," who rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior.
Charles Darwin
Argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies.

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