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U. S. Government vocabulary Ch 2


undefined, object
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ordered government
the first English colonists saw the need for an orderly regulation of their relationships with one another
limited government
the concept that government is no all-powerful - it is limited in what it may do and individuals have certain rights that gov't CANNOT take away
representative government
idea that gov't should serve the will of the people - that people should have a voice in deciding what government should and should not do
Magna Carta
included rights of trial by jury and due process - protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property - established the principle that the power of the monarchy is NOT absolute
The Petition of Right
limited the king's power by demanding that the king no imprison political critics without trial by jury; not declare martial law; or rule by the military during peacetime - also no man should be compelled to make any gift or loan without the consent of Parliament -- challenged the idea of divine right of kings - the king now had to obey the law of the land just like everyone else
English Bill of Rights
signed by William & Mary - prohibited a standing army in peacetime except with the consent of Parliament and required that all parliamentary elections be free; no more suspending of laws by the king; no more levying taxes without the grant of Parliament; right to a speedy trial; freedom from excessive bail; no cruel or unusual punishment
a written grant of authority from the king to establish a colony
two (bi) house legislature
one (uni) house legislature
popular sovereignty
principle that gov't can exist and function ONLY with the consent of the governed - it is the people who hold power
formal approval
Articles of Confederation
established a league of states - each state keeping its independence - the states came together for common defense against enemies
Shays' Rebellion
armed insurrection of Massachusetts farmers to protest the loss of their farms to tax collectors
Framers of the Constitution
the group of men who came together to write the Constitution - included Washington, Madison, Franklin (Jefferson was NOT among them)
Father of the Constitution
James Madison
Virginia Plan
called for a new gov't with 3 branches: legislative, executive, judicial; Bicameral legislature; Congress could use force to make a state obey national law; Congress would CHOOSE a national executive and a national judiciary -- called for the creation of a truly national government with greatly expanded powers & the power to enforce its decisions - NOT popular with smaller states
New Jersey Plan
keep the unicameral Congress of the Confederation with each State equally represented; called for a federal executive of more than one person chosen by Congress and could be removed by a majority of States' governors; the federal judiciary would be appointed by the executive
main difference between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan
How would States be represented in Congress? By population or money as in the Virginia Plan? Or would every state be equal as in the New Jersey Plan?
Connecticut Compromise
(Great Compromise)
agreement that Congress should be composed of two houses - the Senate where the States would be represented equally and the House where the number of representatives would be based on the population of each state
Three-Fifths Compromise
answered the question of should slaves be counted in the population of the Southern states -- each slave would be counted as "three-fifths" of a person
Commerce and Slave Trade Commission
Congress was forbidden the power to tax the export of goods from any state; was also forbidden the power to act on the slave trade for at least twenty years
group that favored ratification of the new Constitution
opposed the ratification of the new Constitution - especially the greatly increased powers of the central government over the States AND the lack of a Bill of Rights
The Federalist
85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison that defended the new Constitution
pen name of the authors of The Federalist Papers
Name the three types of early colonies - how was the governor chosen in each? (CRP)
1. Charter colonies - governors were elected by white male landowners
2. Royal colonies - king named the governor
3. Proprietary colonies - governor was appointed by the proprietor
Albany Plan of Union
(identify and give significance)
proposed by Ben Franklin; form an annual congress of delegates from each of 13 colonies; had the power to raise miliary forces, make war & peace, regulate trade, levy and collect taxes - would be remember later
Stamp Act Congress
(identify and give significance)
nine colonies sent delegates to New York to protest tax stamps on all legal documents & newspapers - was seen as "taxation without representation" - marked the first time a significant number of colonists joined to oppose the British gov't
First Continental Congress
(identify and give significance)
55 delegates (exc GA) met in Philadelphia in response to the Intolerable Acts - sent a Declaration of Rights protesting Britain's policies to King George III
Second Continental Congress (identify and give significance)
Revolution had begun; each colony sent representatives; organized a continental army with G. Washington in command - significance: nation's first national gov't - served for five years
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
committee of five - Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston AND Thomas Jefferson who did almost ALL of the work
Why were the 1780s known as the Critical Period?
after the Revolutionary War, the country's economic and political problems had to be solved
What three major general sources were used when the Framers wrote the Constitution?
Name the first capital, president, and vice-president.
New York City, George Washington President and John Adams Vice President

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